Social Psych Test 3


a preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individual members


a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people. Stereotypes are sometimes overgeneralized, inaccurate, and resistant to new info (and sometimes accurate)


unjustified negative behavior toward a group or its members

racism (2 /or)

1. An individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given race
2. institutional practices (even if not motivated by prejudice) that subordinate people of a given race

sexism (2/or)

1. An individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given sex
2. institutional practices (even if not motivated by prejudice) that subordinate people people of a given sex

social dominance orientation

A motivation to have one's group dominate other social groups


believing in the superiority of one's own ethnic and cultural group, and having a corresponding disdain for all other groups

authoritarian personality

a personality that is disposed to favor obedience to authority and intolerance of outgroups and those lower in status

realistic group conflict theory

the theory that prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources

social identity

the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our gorup memberships


Us"- a group of people who share a sense of belonging, a feeling of common identity


them"-a group that people perceive as distinctively different from or apart from their ingroup

ingroup bias

the tendency to favor one's own group

terror management

according to "terror management theory," people's self-protective emotional and cognitive responses (including adhering more strongly to their cultural worldviews and prejudices) when confronted with reminders of their mortality

outgroup homogeneity effect

perception of outgroup members as more similar to one another than are ingroup members. Thus "they are alike; we are diverse.

own-race bias

the tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces of their own race. (also called the cross-race effect or other-race effect.)

stigma consciousness

a person's expectation of being victimized by prejudice or discrimination

group-serving bias

explaining away outgroup members' positive behaviors; also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions (while excusing such behavior by one's own group).

just-world phenomenon

the tendency of people to believe that the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get


accommodating individuals who deviate from one's stereotype by thinking of them as "exceptions to the rule


accommodating individuals who deviate form one's stereotype by forming a new stereotype about this subset of the group

stereotype threat

a disruptive concern, when facing a negative stereotype, that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype. Unlike self-fulfilling prophecies that hammer one's reputation into one's self-concept, stereotype threat situations have immediate effects


physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone

hostile aggression

aggression that springs from anger; its goal is to injure

instrumental aggression

aggression that aims to injure, but only as a means to some other end

instinctive behavior

an innate, unlearned behavior pattern exhibited by all members of a species

frustation-aggression theory

the theory that frustration triggers a readiness to aggress


the blocking goal-directed behavior


the redirection of aggression to a target other than the source of the frustration. Generally, the new target is a sager or more socially acceptable target

relative deprivation

the perception that one is less well off than others with whom one compares oneself

social learning theory

the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished

prosocial behavior

positive, constructive, helpful social behavior; the opposite of antisocial behavior

social scripts

culturally provided mental instructions for how to act in various situations


emotional release. The catharsis view of aggression is that the aggressive drive is reduced when one "releases" aggressive energy, either by acting aggressively or by fantasizing aggression

need to belong

a motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing, positive interactions


geographical nearness. Proximity (more precisely, "functional distance") powerfully predicts liking

mere-exposure effect

the tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more or rated more positively after the rater has been repeatedly exposed to them

matching phenomenon

the tendency for men and women to choose as partners those whoa re a "good match" in attractiveness and other traits

physical-attractiveness stereotype

the presumption that physically attractive people possess other socially desirable traits as well: What is beautiful is good.


the popularly supposed tendency, in a relationship between two people, for each to complete what is missing in the other


the use of strategies, such as flattery, by which people seek to gain another's favor

reward theory of attraction

the theory that we like those whose behavior is rewarding to us or whom we associate with rewarding events

passionate love

a state of intense longing for union with another. Passionate lovers are absorbed in each other, feel ecstatic at attaining their partner's love, and are disconsolate on losing it

Two-factor theory of emotion

arousal x its label = emotion

secure attachment

attachments rooted in trust and marked by intimacy

avoidant attachment

attachments marked by discomfort over, or resistance to, being close to others

insecure attachment

attachments marked by anxiety or ambivalence


a condition in which the outcomes people receive from a relationship are proportional to wha they contribute to it
Note: equitable outcomes needn't always be equal outcomes


revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others

disclosure reciprocity

the tendency for one person's intimacy of self-disclosure to match that of a conversational partner


a motive to increase another's welfare without conscious regard for one's self-interests

social-exchange theory

the theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one's rewards and minimize one's costs


a motive (supposedly underlying all behavior) to increase one's own welfare. The opposite of altruism, which aims to increase another's welfare

reciprocity norm

an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them

social capital

the mutual support and cooperation enabled by a social network

social responsibility

an expectation that people will help those needing help

kin selection

the idea that evolution has selected altruism toward one's close relatives to enhance the survival of mutually shared genes


the vicarious experience of another's feelings; putting oneself in another's shoes.

bystander effect

The finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders

door-in-the-face technique

a strategy for gaining a concession. After someone first turns down a large request (the door-in-the-face), the same requester counteroffers with a more reasonable request

moral exclusion

the perception of certain individuals or groups as outside the boundary within which one applies moral values and rules of fairness. Moral inclusion is regarding others as within one's circle of moral concern

overjustification effect

the result of bribing people to do what they already like doing; they may then see their actions as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing.


a perceived incompatibility of actions or goals


a condition marked by low levels of hostility and aggression and by mutually beneficial relationships

social trap

a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing its self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior. Examples include the prisoner's dilemma and the tragedy of the commons

tragedy of the commons

The commons is any shared resource, including air, water, energy sources, and food supplies. The tragedy occurs when individuals consume more than their share, with the cost of their doing so dispersed among all, causing the ultimate collapse--the tragedy

non-zero-sum games

games in which outcomes need not sum to zero. With cooperation, both can win; with competition, both can lose (also called mixed-motive situations)

mirror-image perceptions

reciprocal views of each other often held by parties in conflict; for example, each may view itself as moral and peace-loving an the other as evil and aggressive

equal-status contact

contact on an equal basis. Just as a relationship between people of unequal status breeds attitudes consistent with their relationship, so do relationships between those of equal status. Thus, to reduce prejudice, interracial contact should ideally be bet

superordinate goal

a shared goal that necessitates cooperative effect; a goal that overrides people's differences from one another


seeking an agreement to a conflict through direct negotiation between parties


an attempt by a neutral third party to resolve a conflict by facilitating communication and offering suggestions


resolution of a conflict by a neutral third party who studies both sides and imposes a settlement

integrative agreements

win-win agreements that reconcile both parties' interests to their mutual benefit


Acronym for "graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension reduction"--a strategy designed to de-escalate international tensions

dual attitude system

implicit and explicit