Criminal Justice Revel Pearson Chapter 6

Preventing crime
Crime prevention is a proactive approach to the problem of crime. It involves the anticipation, recognition, and appraisal of a crime risk and initiation of action to remove or reduce it. In preventing crime, police agencies act before a

Which element of the police mission involves a proactive approach to the problem of crime?

Sean consumes alcohol in public and vandalizes a grocery store.
Quality-of-life offenses are minor law violations, sometimes called petty crimes, which demoralize residents and businesspeople by creating disorder. Examples of petty crimes include excessiv

Which of the following is an example of a quality-of-life offense?

Preventive patrol
Preventive patrol is the dominant operational policing strategy. Routine patrol activities, which place uniformed police officers on the street in the midst of the public, consume most of the resources of local and state-level police age

Which of the following operational policing strategies consumes most of the resources of local and state-level police agencies?

Support services
Support services keep police agencies running and help deliver the equipment, money, and resources necessary to support law enforcement officers in the field. Support services include activities such as dispatch, training, human resources

Susan is a police dispatcher. She is engaged in which core operational strategy?

Elan's span of control is three.
Span of control refers to the number of police personnel or the number of units supervised by a particular commander. Elan supervises three officers, so his span of control is three.

Elan works as a field officer in a state law enforcement agency and has three officers reporting to him. Elan and another field officer both report to Jane. Based on these facts, which of the following statements is most likely to be true?

Chain of command
Chain of command is the unbroken line of authority that extends through all levels of an organization, from the highest to the lowest.

___________ refers to the order of authority within a police department.

legalistic
Departments operating under the legalistic style enforce the letter of the law. They routinely avoid community disputes arising from violations of social norms that do not break the law and are likely to adopt a hands-off approach to behaviors

Officers who follow the ______ style of policing are likely to take a hands-off approach to community disputes and violations of social norms.

strategic policing.
Strategic policing retains the traditional police goal of professional crime fighting but enlarges the enforcement target to include nontraditional kinds of criminals.

Laura is the chief of a large urban department. She believes that the goal of policing is professional crime fighting but also wants her department to focus on criminals such as white-collar criminals, computer criminals, and serial offenders. Laura is a

NCISP outlines methods law enforcement agencies can take to participate in sharing information.
The NCISP provides specific steps that law enforcement agencies can take to participate in the sharing of critical law enforcement and terrorism prevention inf

Which of the following statements regarding the National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan (NCISP) is true?

Field Intelligence Groups (FIGs)
FIGs were developed by the FBI as a counterterrorism component following recommendations of the 9/11 Commission. FIGs, which exist in all 56 FBI field offices, work closely with Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTFs) to provi

Which of the following is an FBI counterterrorism component that developed following recommendations of the 9/11 Commission?

Dedicated recruitment efforts by police departments to encourage applications from racial and ethnic minority groups
Many departments today have dramatically increased their complement of officers from underrepresented groups through dedicated recruitment

How have many departments today managed to dramatically increase their complement of officers from underrepresented groups?

Departments are reluctant to assign them to patrol and other potentially dangerous field activities
Research has found that female officers are often underutilized and that many departments hesitate to assign women to patrol and other potentially dangerou

According to research, why do some female police officers experience frustration and lack of job satisfaction?

CrimeStat
CrimeStat is a Windows-based spatial statistics-analysis software program for analyzing crime-incident locations. Developed by Ned Levine and Associates with grants from the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), CrimeStat provides statistical too

Which of the following is a Windows-based spatial statistics-analysis software program used for analyzing crime-incident locations?

Quality of life
Quality-of-life offenses involve acts that create physical disorder or that reflect social decay. They are minor violations of the law that demoralize community residents and business people. The broken windows model is based on the idea t

The broken windows model of policing focuses on which type of offenses?

Predicting crime
CompStat is a technique for predicting criminal activity. It is a process of crime analysis and police management that helps police managers better assess their performance and foresee the potential for crime.

Neil is a law enforcement officer who uses the CompStat process in his daily work. Neil is most likely engaged in activities that relate to which part of the police mission?

Determining that a crime has been committed
The preliminary investigation, which is carried out by the police officer who responds to the scene of a crime, includes the determination that a crime has been committed.

Which of the following activities is part of the preliminary investigation?

detectives
A criminal investigation is the process of discovering, collecting, preparing, identifying, and presenting evidence to determine what happened and who is responsible when a crime occurs. It is up to criminal investigators, or detectives, to sol

It is generally up to ______ to solve most crimes and produce the evidence needed for the successful prosecution of suspects.

Response time
Response time, the time it takes for police officers to respond to calls for service, is one of the key measures of police performance connected to citizen satisfaction.

Which of the following measures is strongly linked to citizen satisfaction of police performance?

Solvability factor
A solvability factor is information about a crime that can provide a basis for determining the perpetrator's identity. If the solvability factors exist, they are likely to lead to the identity of the perpetrator, and therefore, to an ar

Which of the following describes information about a crime that forms the basis for determining the perpetrator's identity?

Line operations
Line operations are field or supervisory activities directly related to daily police work.

_________ involve field activities that are directly related to daily police work.

Human resources administration work by a HR professional
Human resources administration work by a HR professional is a staff operations responsibility because it involves the HR professional hiring, training, or providing administrative support to line pe

Which of the following types of work is primarily associated with staff operations in a police agency?

Span of control
Span of control refers to the number of police personnel or the number of units supervised by a particular commander.

___________ refers to the number of personnel or units that a particular commander supervises.

Community policing
Community policing (sometimes called community-oriented policing) represents the newest progressive collaborative effort between the police and the community that identifies problems of crime and disorder and involves all elements of th

__________ represents the newest progressive strategy to address the causes of crime and reducing the fear of crime and social disorder through problem-solving strategies and police-community partnerships.

The service style of policing
Service-style policing emphasizes meeting the needs of the community and serving its members. It is a style that is marked by a concern with helping rather than strict enforcement. Service-oriented police agencies are more li

Jamie is a patrol officer working for a police department with a model police-community relations (PCR) program. Jamie's department collaborates with social services and other community agencies to provide counseling for minor offenders and to assist comm

reform
During the reform era, police focused on traditional crime-fighting and the capture of criminals, as well as cracking down on organized crime.

During the _______ era of policing, the police focused on traditional crime-fighting.

Service calls are considered a key function.
Traditional policing views service calls as something to be dealt with only if there is no "real" police work to do. Community policing views service calls as a vital function and a great opportunity.

Which of the following is characteristic of community policing?

Intelligence-led policing
Intelligence-led policing (ILP), an important technique used against terrorism and organized and transnational crime, evaluates information collected from diverse sources, integrates the relevant information into a cohesive packa

Scott works for a law enforcement agency that focuses on terrorism and transnational crime. Which of the following policing styles is Scott most likely to be engaged in to assist his agency's mission?

The assessed likelihood of attack
The extent of local departments' engagement in preventive activities depends substantially on budgetary considerations and is strongly influenced by the assessed likelihood of attack.

Which of the following factors is most likely to affect the extent to which local police departments engage in activities related to the prevention of terrorism?

information services.
Law Enforcement Online (LEO), an intranet intended exclusively for use by the law enforcement community, is a national interactive computer communications system and information service. The International Justice and Public Safety In

LEO and NLETS are types of

Demands related to child-rearing is a major factor contributing to the resignation of female officers.
A recent report of female officers in Massachusetts found that the demands of child-rearing in contemporary society was a major factor contributing to t

Which of the following statements regarding female police officers is true?

Women
Women are significantly underrepresented in policing, particularly at supervisory levels.

Which of the following groups is significantly underrepresented in policing today?

tend to use more physical force than female officers.
Because female officers tend to use less physical force than male officers, they are less likely to be accused of using excessive force.

In general, male officers

Police Subculture

A particular set of values, beliefs, and acceptable forms of behavior characteristic of American police. Socialization into the police subculture begins with recruit training and continues thereafter.

Police working personality

All aspects of the traditional values and patterns of behavior evidenced by police officers who have been effectively socialized into the police subculture. Characteristics of the police personality often extend to the personal lives of law enforcement pe

Police corruption

The abuse of police authority for personal or organizational gain.

Knapp Commission

A committee that investigated police corruption in New York City in the early 1970's.

Internal affairs

The branch of a police organization tasked with investigating charges of wrongdoing involving members of the department.

Biological weapons

A biological agent used to threaten human life (for example, anthrax, smallpox, or any infectious disease).

Intelligence-led policing (ILP)

The collection and analysis of information to produce an intelligence end product designed to inform police decision making at both the tactical and strategic levels.

Criminal intelligence

Information compiled, analyzed, or disseminated in an effort to anticipate, prevent, or monitor criminal activity.

NLETS

See international justice and public safety information sharing network.

National crime intelligence sharing plan (NCISP)

A formal intelligence-sharing initiative that identifies the security and intelligence-sharing needs recognized in the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

Civil liability

Potential responsibility for payment of damages or other court-ordered enforcement as a result of a ruling in a lawsuit.

1983 lawsuits

A civil suit brought under Title 42, Section 1983, of the U.S. Code against anyone who denies others their constitutional right to life, liberty, or property without due process of law.

Bivens action

A civil suit, based on the case of Bivens v. Six Unknown Federal Agents, brought against federal government officials for denying the constitutional rights of others.

Racial profiling

any police-initiated action based on race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than on a person's behavior.

Police use of force

The use of physical restraint by a police officer when dealing with a member of the public.

Excessive force

The application of an amount or frequency of force greater than that required to compel compliance from a willing or unwilling subject

Problem police officers

A law enforcement officer who exhibits problem behavior, as indicated by high rates of citizen complaints and use-of-force incidents and by other evidence.

Deadly force

Force likely to cause death or great bodily harm. Also, "the intentional use of a firearm or other instrument resulting in a high probability of death.

Police Professionalism

The increasing formalization of police work and the rise in public acceptance of the police.

Police Ethics

The special responsibility to adhere to moral duty and obligation that is inherent in police work.

Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST) Program

The official program of a state or legislative jurisdiction that sets standards for the training of law enforcement officers. All states set such standards, although not all use the term POST.

Less-lethal weapons

A weapon that is designed to disable, capture, or immobilize-but not kill-a suspect.