NBDHE Community Dental Health

Which levels of government focuses on health problems of international status?

WHO and IFDH

Which levels of government focuses on health problems of national population? (Federal)

DHHS, CDC, HRSA, NIH, NIDCR, and AHRQ

What is epidemiology?

study of the cause, pattern of occurrence, and determinates of disease

What is host?

factors about the person

Example of host?

age, sex, genes, immune status, occupation, family, background, culture

What is agent?

biological, chemical, physical/mechanical cause of disease or injury

Example of agent?

flu virus, chemicals, radiation, toothbrush bristles

What is environment?

relates to outside forces influencing health

Example of environment?

water sources, temperature, altitude, radiation, pollution, noise

What is outbreak?

sudden appearance of a disease

What is endemic?

expected normal rate of disease (at end of day, not too worried, because this is what usually happens)

What is epidemic?

unexpectedly large number of cases (EPI think of increase)

What is pandemic?

outbreak of disease over a wide geographic area (Pandemonium)

What is natality?

number of live births

What is morbidity?

the rate of an illness in a population

What is mortality?

the number of deaths in a population

What is incidence?

number of NEW cases

What is prevalence?

number of new and old cases

What is attack?

an incidence rate calculuated for a population for a single disease outbreak at a specific time

Descriptive studies?

describes an epidemic (Determines WHO, WHERE, and WHEN)

Analytical studies?

analyze information to test a hypothesis

Retrospective studies?

case control study, compares those with disease and without (Retro, looking into past)

Prospective studies?

Look at those without disease exposed to risk factors today to see whose developing disease (Prospect, looking to the future)

Longitudinal study?

any study over a long time

What are experimental studies?

experiment, studies carried out under controlled situations (Lab)

Control groups?

no experimental treatment, often recieves the placebo

Treatment groups?

receives experimental treatment

Independent variable?

variable that is manipulated

Dependent variable?

depends on the independent variable

Uncontrolled variable?

variable not related to purpose of the study

Type I examination method

complete exam, complete set of radiographs, lighting source, study models, tests, mouth mirror and all instruments

Type II examination method

limited exam, limited amount of radiographs, lighting source, mouth mirror and all instruments

Type III examination method

screening, no radiographs, lighting source, mouth mirror and maybe instruments

Type IV examination method

screening, no radiographs, lighting source maybe, tongue depressor

What is Ramjford teeth?

6 teeth used to represent the entire dentition to modify of simplify data

Reversible indices?

index measures conditions that can be reversed of solved (gingivitis, plaque)

Irreversible indices?

measures conditions that cannot be reversed (caries or periodontal disease)

Simple indices?

simple yes or no answer

Cumulative indices?

measures all evidence of condition (past and present)

Characteristics of ideal/good index?

simple, valid, reliable, clear, sensative, quantifiable, objective, and accepted

RCI index

root caries index

DMFT/DMFS index

decayed, missing, filled teeth/decated, missing, filled surfaces (PERMANENT TEETH)

deft index

decayed, needs for extraction, filled primary teeth

dfs/dft index

decayed, filled primary teeth/surfaces

GBI index

gingival bleeding index

SBI index

sulcular bleeding index

GI index

gingival index

PI index

periodontal index

PDI index

periodontal disease index

PSR Index

peridontal screening and recording

CPITN index

community periodontal index of treatment needs

OHI S index

oral hygiene index- simplified

PLI index

plaque index

PHP index

patient hygiene performance

VMI index

volpe manhold index

What is need?

difference between what is and what ought to be; type of care or education necessary

What is true need?

data driven

What is perceived need?

can be seen through eye of population, wants

What is demand?

types of care or services desired

What is utilization?

action use of services available by th epopulation

What is barriers?

obstacles that interfere with care to be provided

Stages of private practice program planning?

1. Assess
2. Diagnose
3. Plan
4. Implement
5. Evaluate
6. Document

Stages of community health program planning?

Assess, Plan, Implement, Evaluate

What is primary data?

data collected by yourself

What is secondary data?

data collected by someone else (existing data)

What is quantitative data?

numbers

What is qualitative data?

descriptive data (not numbers)

What is direct observation?

watch with your eyes (time consuming)

What is interview?

directly one on one (time consuming)

What is questionnaire?

distribute a list of questions (good for large groups)

What is survey?

distributes a questionnaire and then analyzes the results (best choice for large group)

What is epidemiological surveys?

research surveys (time consuming)

What are goals?

broad statements

What are objectives?

very specific statments that can be measured

Objective must contain three itiems?

action, conditions, and criterion (by the end of the program, the participants will be able to identify healthy foods with 95% accuracy

Medicare

elderly and disabled

Medicaid

give aid to the poor

COBRA

offers insurance to workers when they no longer work (up to 18 months)

Block grants?

lump sum given to be use at discretion

Line item grants?

specifies where monies are to go

External motivation factors

focuses on reward from outside (ex. make mom happy)

Internal motivation factors

focuses on reward form inside ( ex. doing it for myself)

Stages of learning?

Unawareness
Awareness
Self-interest
Involvement
Action
Habit

Transtheoretical model?

precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, termination

Health BELIEF model?

Addresses the relationship between a person's beliefs and behaviors

Summative evaluation?

at the end, summary

Formative evaluation?

during the program, while its forming

Random

each element of population has equal chance (BEST)

Stratified

select an element according to certain subgroups

Systematic

system for collective (every nth person)

Judgement

someone familiar with population selects sample (BIAS HIGH)

Convenience

sample group chosen solely on convenience

Nominal

no rank in order (ethnic groups)

Ordinal

ranked in order by criteria

Interval

equal ordered units around an arbitrary zero (zero means something, fahrenheit)

Ratio

equal ordered units (weight, height)

Continuous

continuous distinct separate units (weight, height)

Discrete

distinct separate units, but cannot have parts of a unit (number of people)

Categorical

no value just a category (color of M&M)

Dichotomous

one or the other (yes or no)

Descriptive statistics?

describes the data you currently have

Inferential statistics?

allows to infer what may have happen with a population based on smaller population

What is data matrix?

arrangement of data scores from lowest to highest

Most common measure of central tendency?

mean

What is mean?

average

What is mode?

most frequently occurring score

What is median?

Middle number

What is the peak of the graph?

mode

What is positive skew?

more scores fall in the lower range, tail goes to right

What is negative skew?

more scores fall in the higher range, tail goes to left

What is validity?

degree that measure the variable it is designed to measure

What is reliability?

reproducible, consistency

Intraexaminer reliability

Consistent performance by the SAME evaluator

Interexaminer reliability

consistent performance between examiners

What is calibration?

process of establishing a relationship between measuring device and units of measure

What is sensitivity?

the ability of a test to correctly identify the PRESENCE of a disease

What is specificity?

ability of a test to identify the ABSENCE of disease

correlation coefficient

the closed the number to +1 or -1 the STRONGER the relationship

What is T test?

statistical measure, the difference between TWO mean scores
(TIP: "t" stands for two)

ANOVA (analysis of variance)

an inferential statistical test for comparing the means of three or more groups

Probability value= P value

number that tells how likely it is that you came to a false conclusion, smaller the p value the more significant

What is a confidence interval?

describes how confident that you are correct, only accepts 95% or above