Module 3 Patho Body fluids, Acids and Bases

Extracellular fluid (ECF)

fluid outside the cell
Includes: Plasma, Interstitial fluid
Contains: Large amounts of sodium and chloride, moderate amounts of bicarbonate and small amounts of magnesium, calcium, and phosphorus

Intracellular fluid (ICF)

fluid within cells
Contains: Almost No Calcium, small amounts of sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, and phosphorus. Moderate amounts of magnesium, and Large amounts of Potassium

What is the most abundant intracellular electrolyte?



Substances that dissociate in solution to form charged particles or ions. Such as Sodium Chloride


Particles that do not dissociate into ions such as glucose and urea

Osmotic Pressure

PULLS that attracts fluid out of the tissue back into the blood vessel on the venous side of the capillaries. Molecules with PULLING POWER are Protein, Glucose, and Sodium..

Hydrostatic Pressure

PUSHES fluid out of the blood vessel into the tissue on the arterial side of the capillaries.

Isotonic Solutions

-Most commonly used solution
-perfect solution to put fluid into the blood vessels and raise blood pressure if it is too low.
-lactated ringers, .9% NaCl (saline)

Hypotonic Solution

Water moves into the cells.
Fluid "Goes OUT" of the blood stream.
-Hypotonic solution is given IV when the TISSUE is DEHYDRATED (as in diabetic ketoacidosis).
-0.45% NS; 0.225% NS; or D5W (dextrose 5% and water).

Hypertonic Soultion

Water is pulled out of the cell
fluid "ENTERS" the blood stream. Fluid is attracted from the tissue into the blood stream by the high concentration of solutes in hypertonic fluid.
LARGE molecules like Proteins and Glucose attract water, in addition to sal

How much fluid does the ICF constitute?


How much fluid does the ECF constitute? and How is it broken down?

20% and the two categories are Plasma and Interstitial Fluid in addition to the Transcellular Compartment: Cerebropspinal (CSF), Preitoneal Cavity, Joint Spaces, and the Gastrointestinal Tract.


Palpable swelling produced by the expansion of interstitial fluid volume.
Spaces can hold an additional 10-30L of fluid
Physiological Mechanisms that can cause edema: Increase capillary filtration pressure, decrease capillary colloidal osmotic pressure, i

Normal Range for Sodium

Affects the brain and nervous system
Hypernatermia (dehydration) and Hyponatermia (fluid overload)
Causes seizures and changes in LOC

Normal Range for Potassium

Affects the Heart, muscles, GI
Causes dysrhythmias, N/V, paresthia
High Potassium causes diarrhea
Low Calcium causes constipation

Normal range for Calcium

Affects Muscles and nerves.
Can all also affect heart and B/P
Low Calcium causes tetany
-Chvostek's, Laryngeal Spasm
High Calcium causes muscle weakness

Normal range for Magnesium

Affects smooth muscle, and DTRs
Low Magnesium causes Hyperreflexia
High Magnesium causes Respiratory failure
Milk of Magnesia= Laxative

Normal range for pH


Normal range for PCO2



Bicarbonate (Renal)


partial pressure of oxygen