Comm Quiz 2 (Ch 10,11,12)

Advertising is:

not a medium but a support industry in America., overseen by the Federal Trade Commission, how American consumers pay for most of their media.

In the 1800s, most media owners' response to consumer complaints about advertising was to:

develop an open advertising policy, which allowed them to continue to accept ads while criticizing the ads at the same time.

In the 1800s, many readers complained about:

patent medicine ads.

In a practice adopted from radio, early television programs usually:

carried direct sponsorship.

The word "advertise" originally meant:

to take note or consider.

Daniel Boorstin said advertising in the United States has which of the following characteristics?

repetition, an advertising style
ubiquity

The ubiquity of advertising means that:

advertising is everywhere.

What was the first printed advertisement, created by William Caxton in England in 1478, for?

his book

The term "demographics" refers to:

the analysis of audience characteristics, such as sex, age and marital status.

Advertisers use a formula based on the cost of reaching __________ to determine where to run their ads.

1,000 people

The federal agency with the main responsibility for monitoring ads for deception is the:

Federal Trade Commission.

Hard liquor advertising:

was challenged in 1996 by Seagram's, which advertised whiskey on local TV in Texas.

The Food and Drug Administration:

oversees claims that appear on food labels.

Which is NOT one of the ways that author Jib Fowles says advertisers work to attract buyers?

need to sell products

Which of the following is not true of television commercials?

National advertisers use television commercials to deliver their messages because of its low cost.

In what year did advertising income in radio exceed advertising income for magazines?

1938

The first American newspaper to declare, "advertising is our revenue" was

The Philadelphia Public Ledger

The rate at which someone visits a Web site to learn more because of an Internet ad is called:

the "click-through rate.

What is "viral marketing"?

pass-along advertising messages

One of the main arguments against advertising is:

advertising reduces competition and creates monopolies.

According to the Impact / Global box, "In Which Countries Do Marketers Spend the Most per Person for Advertising?," which of the following was true in 2014?

The most money spent per person on advertising was in the U.S.

According to the Impact / Society box, "Top 10 Advertisers in the United States," which of the following is true?

Telecommunications companies spend nearly as much on advertising in the U.S. as General Motors.

According to the Impact / Profile box, "The Advertising Networker: Sir Martin Sorrell of WPP," where is the world's largest advertising agency based?

Tokyo

According to the Impact / Money box, "What It Costs: Ad Prices From TV's Biggest Buys to the Smallest Screens," what is the costliest scripted series on TV for advertising?

The Walking Dead

Originally, television was envisioned as a medium without advertising.

False

Early TV advertisers expected viewers to buy their products out of gratitude for sponsoring a popular program.

True

Making a TV commercial for national broadcast is less expensive per minute than making a television program.

False

One argument against television advertising is that viewers have the ability to change channels, so TV commercials are not as effective as print advertisements.

True

CPM means "cost per million" people an ad can reach.

False

The Federal Trade Commission can order an advertiser to halt a deceptive ad campaign.

True

Early magazines embraced advertising as essential for product sales.

False

International advertising campaigns have become more common for global products.

True

Government regulation of advertising to protect consumers began with the Truth in Advertising Act in 1906.

False

Recent new approaches to Internet advertising seek to make advertising look like entertainment.

True

In the classic definition, public relations involves:

creating understanding for or good will toward, a company, a person or a product.

The first publicity firm in the United States was called:

The Publicity Bureau.

The first publicity firms in the United States were hired to:

overcome public criticism of railroads and other industries.

Which of the following companies/institutions was the first to create an in-house public relations firm to do fundraising?

The Washington, D.C., YMCA

Which of the following women was not an early public relations pioneer?

Ida Tarbell

An organized attack against a corporation presented on the Internet is called:

cybersmear.

The man who fabricated a best-dressed contest to promote Rita Hayworth in 1939 was:

Henry Rogers.

The nation's largest single employer of public information people is (are):

the federal government.

An example of well-managed "crisis public relations" occurred during:

Natural beverage maker Odwalla's response to reports it had sold unpasteurized apple juice containing E coli bacteria.

Many firms attempt to use PR to get positive publicity for their products because:

it is cheaper to get a publicity release published than to purchase an ad.

Two examples of poorly handled public relations crises are:

Toyota and BP Petroleum

In the future, PR people must:

be aware of changing demographics.
expand overseas.
incorporate new technologies.

Using public relations to create a favorable story about a new toy is an example of:

product public relations.

Which types of industries are likely to use PR?

Businesses, such as Toyota
Non-profit organizations, such as Habitat for Humanity
Professional sports teams

Which of the following is not a service typically offered by a PR professional?

planning a party to launch a new product line
editing shareholder reports
leading focus groups

The former newspaper reporter who organized the Committee on Public Information for the U.S. Government during World War I was:

George Creel.

Which of the following was not part of the "Declaration of Principles" published by Ivy Lee in 1906 on behalf of his public relations firm, Lee & Parker?

supporting negative principles

Which of the following phrases was not part of the various attempts to define public relations over a period of 30 years by Edward L. Bernays?

a secret press bureau

The public relations firm of Byoir and Associations was charged with which ethics violation in the 1950s?

creating a "front" organization

Modern public relations emerged at the beginning of the 20th century as a way for business to respond to muckrakers and to the antitrust campaign of which U.S. president?

Theodore Roosevelt

Which of the following is a major difference between the practice of public relations and the practice of advertising?

Advertising people are usually not involved in corporate policy decisions, and public relations people usually are.

According to the Impact / Global box, "McDonald's Launches Customer Complaints App in Japan," the fast-food giant is launching its new app in response to what?

Food safety problems, including objects found in food

According to the Impact / Money box, "Susan G. Komen Foundation Discovers the Price of Poor Public Relations," which of the following is true?

Their problems stemmed from their decision to defund the controversial organization, Planned Parenthood.

According to the Impact / Money box, "Top 10 Worldwide Public Relations Agencies," where is the world's top public relations agency located?

Chicago

According to the Impact / Money box, "Top 10 U.S. Public Relations Agencies," what types of companies own nine of the top 10 agencies?

Advertising agencies

Ivy Lee was one of the first public relations practitioners to promise he would be honest and open with the news media.

True

There are three ways to encourage someone to do what you want them to do: power, patronage, and persuasion.

True

Because of their distinctly different functions, PR firms and advertising agencies are almost never combined.

False

When Toyota accelerator flaws caused 51 deaths in 2010, the crisis communications that followed the recall was handled correctly.

False

The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 1961 that a public relations firm could exercise its First Amendment rights to present dishonest information on behalf of its client.

True

In a PR firm, placement people contact news media, hoping to persuade them to publish or broadcast stories about their clients.

True

Anne Williams Wheaton, an early public relations pioneer, later worked for President Dwight D. Eisenhower as his associate press secretary.

True

The Public Relations Society of America was the first organization to establish a code of ethics for the public relations industry.

True

After a British Petroleum drilling platform exploded in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, the company immediately accepted responsibility for the spill and practiced good crisis public relations.

False

Before 1900, industry worked successfully with the media in promoting a positive image by providing truthful information.

False

During the Civil War:

reporters were accredited for the first time as war correspondents by the government.

Ernie Pyle:

wrote stories during World War II that debunked the "glory" of war.

Which event led to what has been called television's finest four days?

the JFK assassination

Agenda-setting, as the term is typically used, refers to the flow of information from:

news organizations to their audiences and one news organization to another.

The audience for print news is:

declining.

The first TV newscasts:

were 15 minutes long.

The Golden Age of Television:

began in 1961 with President John F. Kennedy's inauguration.

Which term describes journalists who were allowed to cover the Iraq war on the frontlines, supervised by the US military?

embedded

News on the Internet appeals to people because:

it's available 24 hours a day.
it compiles headlines from TV and print news services.
people can choose what they want when they want it.

The tendency of journalists to report similar quick conclusions about an event is called:

consensus journalism.

Which of the following was not true of newsreels in movie theaters?

They were updated semi-annually.

News coverage of World War II:

was an opportunity for radio to bring America closer to the action than they had ever been.

The Watergate Hearings in 1973:

was an important television news story for more than a year.

Which of the following is not true of the U.S. military practice of embedding reporters with troops in the Iraq War?

It excludes combat reporters.

Which of the following is not true of The Associated Press?

It was founded overseas by six international news organizations.

Mathew Brady:

took 3,500 photographs of the Civil War.

Which of the following was not true of radio news from the 1920s to the 1940s?

Most radio stations did not maintain their own news departments and instead relied on the radio networks.

Which of these is not a trend affecting the future of news media?

the increase in the number of cable news networks

In the age of the Internet, who bears an increased burden to seek reliable information?

news consumers

According to the Impact / Profile box, "Ernie Pyle: The War Correspondent Who Hated War," which of the following is true about Ernie Pyle?

He is the most honored journalist in the United States.

According to the Impact / Society box, "Top 10 Digital-Only News Sites," the Internet news site visited most often is:

Huffington Post

According to the Impact / Society box, "The Growing Market for Mobile News in the United States," which of the following is true?

64% of tablet owners and 62% of smartphone owners say they use the devices for news at least weekly.

According to the Impact/ Convergence box, "Young Adults Want News Every Day, Survey Shows," which of the following is true?

Two-thirds of Americans ages 18 to 34 regularly consume news online.

? The shift toward more digital news coverage has led to a need for what?

Reporters with print backgrounds.

Who founded Cable News Network (CNN) in 1980, leading to around-the-clock cable news?

Ted Turner

Mathew Brady is considered the nation's first photojournalist.

True

The nation's first consecutively issued newspaper was the Boston News-Letter, beginning in 1704.

True

Accreditation of reporters by the government began during the Civil War.

True

The first TV network newscasts were an hour long.

False

Journalists who practice "agenda setting" usually talk to each other to make sure that they're all writing the same story.

False

Reality shows make it difficult for an audience to distinguish true news footage from recreated drama.

True

The Pentagon's policy of keeping media isolated from U.S. military activities in wartime continued through the Iraq war.

False

Live coverage of the Vietnam War made viewers shy away from war reporting because it was too graphic.

False

During the Cuban missile crisis, President John F. Kennedy confronted Russian Premier Nikita Khrushchev with a live challenge on television.

True

In general, in the 1990s the American public read more newspapers and watched more news on TV.

False