Learning and Memory CH1

Philosophers utilized both _________ and ___________ to gain insight into the abstract principles that govern the universe, as opposed to relying on the ___________ that is characteristic of today's research.

reasoned thought; logical arguments; scientific experimentation

According to Aristotle's principle of _________ we form a strong association between peanut butter and jelly because they appear together very often.

Frequency

Plato was a proponent of _________, which holds that the bulk of our knowledge is ingrained from birth. His student Aristotle was identified with a school of thought known as ________, which claims our ideas stem from experiences.

nativism; empiricism

The belief that the mind and body exist as separate entities is known as ________. A believer in this principle, __________, reasoned that a sensory stimulus and motor response follow a pathway known as the ___________.

dualism; Descarte; reflex arc

According to Darwin, a trait that can evolve through ________ if it is inheritable, variable, and ________.

natural selection; makes an individual more fit to survive and procreate

The late 1800s saw the birth of __________, as scientists interested in psychology began to conduct systematic experiments examining the validity of a hypothesis through manipulation of variables.

experimental psychology

A contemporary of William James, ____________, proposed that the psychology of memory can be defined precisely through mathematical laws as a rigorous natural science.

Hermann Ebbinghaus

How memory deteriorates over a time is known as ____________. Measuring how much information is retained at each point in the time following learning, Ebbinghaus was able to plot a ____________.

forgetting; retention curve

Thorndike referred to the training in which organisms learn to make certain responses in order to obtain or avoid important consequences as __________, which is now also known commonly as _________.

instrumental conditioning; operant conditioning

In Pavlov's classic conditioning, an animal or persons learns to associate the __________ with a(n) ____________ so as to produce a(n) __________.

conditioned stimulus; unconditioned stimulus; conditioned response

Emerging in the 1920s, the American approach to learning known as __________ centered around the argument that psychology should exclusively study observable behaviors.

behaviorism

Although the work of __________ is not longer considered relevant today, his students and followers carried on toward developing mathematical equations to explain learning.

Clark Hull

In ________'s law of __________, behaviors that lead to desirable consequences are ___________ likely to happen again in the future.

Thorndike; effect; more

Edward Tolman, a neo-behaviorist argued that his rats, intrinsically motivated to learn the general layout of mazes, had formed ________, internal psychological representations of the external world.

cognitive maps

Learning that takes place even in the absence of any specific motivation to obtain or avoid important consequences is called _________.

latent learning

An increasing focus on human abilities such as language, reasoning, and thinking led to the rise of _________ psychology. These abilities are not readily explained by a strict __________ approach.

cognitive; behaviorist

The trial by trial variability in the elements we attend to when experiencing a stimulus is captured in the ________ of _________.

stimulus sampling theory; Estes

The number of digits in a standard phone number (not including area code) is relevant to the work of ____________.

George Miller

The importance of looking at individual subjects' performance, not just group averages, was illustrated by the work of _________ on __________.

Gordon Bower; insight learning

The _________ models of cognition suggest that ideas and concepts in the external world are not represented as distinct symbols but as patterns of activity over populations of many nodes. In the models, a ___________ representation consists of the activat

connectionists; distributed

The brain and spinal cord together make up the ___________.

central nervous system

Sensory receptors within your fingers and toes are part of your ________.

peripheral nervous system

The temporal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and frontal lobe are all subdivision of the ________.

cerebral cortex/hemispheres

The ________ looks like a smaller brain hiding underneath the cerebral cortex.

cerebellum

__________ collect neurotransmitters released from a pre-synaptic neuron.

receptions/dendrites/postsynaptic neurons/presynaptic neurons

Cells other than neurons that are found throughout the brain include _________.

glia; blood cells

A major technique currently used to collect structural images of human brains is __________.

MRI

The fact that by nature babies placed underwater do not inhale water is an example of a(n) ___________

reflex/diving reflex

Neurons in the ____________ play an important role in the generation and control of motor responses in humans.

MI/primary motor cortex/cerebellum/basal ganglia

The prototypical connections between neurons and between _________ and __________.

axons/dendrites

A(n) ___________ is a hypothetical physical change in neurons that form the basis of a memory

engram/memory trace

____________ are a technique for identifying specific brain regions that are more or less active during the performance of particular memory tasks.

difference images

If electrodes are attached to a person's head, it is probably because ________ recordings are being collected.

EEG

One method for activating neurons in the cerebral cortex of humans without requiring surgery is __________

transcranial magnetic stimulation/slap to the head

Chemical substances that when brought into the body can change how long neurotransmitters can activate receptors in a synapse are called _____________

drugs

When connected neurons are firing at the same time, ______________ can result.

synaptic plasticity/Hebbian learning/long-term potentiation

If you are nervous about driving about driving in the rain because you once slid off the road when it was raining, you may have become ________ to driving in the rain.

sensitized

If you don't mind getting fillings at the dentist because you've had so much dental work in the past, you probably are _________ to dental drills.

habituated

If you've become habituated to the beeping of a fire alarm with a low battery near your bedroom then having a crow attack you in your bedroom may ___________ your responses to the beeping.

orienting response

Researchers can tell when a baby perceives an object as novel by monitoring the duration of its _________.

weaker

Repetition of ________ stimuli leads to faster habituation.

spaced, massed

A physiological response that researchers sometimes use to monitor the effects of habituation and sensitization is the ___________.

SCR

The suggestion that sensitization and habituation are independent processes in a major feature of ______________.

dual process theory

When an organism learns but does not provide observable evidence that learning has occurred , this is referred to as __________

latent learning

The ________ task makes it possible to determine when a rat is familiar with a particular object.

novel object recognition

Sensitization of the gill-withdrawl reflex in aplysia is associated with increased release of __________ by ___________.

serotonin, interneuron

Learning-related changes in the receptive fields of cortical neurons provide evidence of ________.

cortical plasticity

Blinding an opossum at birth can increase the number of cortical neurons with _____________ receptive fields.

multimodal/somatosensory/auditory

Neurons in the hippocampus that respond strongly in particular locations are called ________

place cells

Repeated exposures to stressful events during development can lead to _______

sensitization

Devices called _______, created to facilitate sensory processing in patients who have lost some sensory function, work better over time because of ________.

sensory prostheses, perceptual learning

The relationship between a US and UR does/does not involve learning

does not

A CR that precedes the US is often a ________ response

preparatory

In eyeblink conditioning the blink is both a __________ and a __________, although they differ in their ____________

CR/UR, timing

In most conditioning paradigms, extinction is faster/slower than the original acquisition of the conditioned response

faster

__________ conditioned responses in the body are most often the result of a biological mechanism called __________

compensatory, homeostasis

Evidence that extinction is more than unlearning, comes primarily from studies that look at shifts in _________ between learning and testing

context or timing

When two cues compete to predict a US or other outcome, the one that is most strongly learned is usually the cue that is learned __________ as revealed in studies of blocking

first

The principle of cue competition in learning arises in the Rescorla-Wagner model, where the association weights of two cues are _______ to generate a prediction of the US

summed

The Rescorla-Wagner model's account of contingency learning depends on viewing the ________ as a conditionable CS

context

Latent inhibition cannot be explained by the Rescorla-Wagner model because during pre-exposure there is no_______

prediction error

Beneath the _________ cells of the cerebellar cortex lie the cerebellar deep nuclei, including the ______ nucleus

Purkinje, interpositions

CS information travels up to the deep nuclei of the cerebellum along axon tracts called the ___________

mossy fibers

An airpuff US to the eye activated neurons in the _________, a structure in the lower part of the brainstem.

inferior olive

Punkinje cells inhibit/excite the interpositus nucleus, the major output pathway drivign the conditioned motor response

inhibit

Animals with the lesions to the cerebellum show CRs, but they are __________

poorly timmed

Latent inhibition and other expressions of CS modulation are impaired or eliminated by lesions to the _________

hippocampus

The neural mechanism for habituation is thought to be a progressive decrease in the number of __________ neurotransmitters vesicles available in the sensory neuron's axon

glutamate

The __________ of the sensory neuron's release of glutamate onto the motor neuron is a presynaptic form of _______

activity-dependent enhancement, synaptic plasticity

Two proteins found inside neurons play critical regulatory roles in the synapse-creation process. The first protein, CREB-1, activates genes in the neuron's nucleus that ________ the growth of new synapses. The second protein CREB-2 ________ the actions o

initiate, inhibits

Rats can be protected from overdose by the ___________ that they learned during the administration of lower doses of heroin in the same setting

conditioned tolerance

Appealing due to its simplicity, the ________ model has proven itself to be a starting point for many promising models of learning

Rescorla-Wagner

The learning that takes place in order to avoid or minimize the consequences of expected averive events is known as _______

aversive conditioning

Rescorla demonstrated that conditioning to a tone stimulus depends not only on the frequency of tone-US pairings but also on the frequency of the US in the _______ of the tone. the results of his experiment imply that animals are sensitive to __________:

absence, contigency

In operant conditioning ________ signal whether a particular response will lead to a particular outcome

discriminative stimuli

The _________ states that the opportunity to perform a highly frequent behavior can reinforce a less frequent behavior. A later reinforcement, called the __________ hypothesis, suggested that the opportunity to perform any behavior can be reinforcing if a

Premack principle, response deprivation

The ___________ is a part of the brain that helps determine subjective values of punishers, such as whether the intense heat of a chili pepper on the tongue is perceived as pleasurable or painful. The __________ is a part of the brain that helps determine

insula/insular cortex, dorsal anterior cingluate cortex/daCC

A ______ is a strong habit that is maintained despite harmful consequences; if the habit is a behavior, it is called a _________

pathological addiction, behavioral addiction

The part of the brain called the _______ contains dopamine-producing neurons that project to the ___________, which is important for stimulus response learning. Both these brain areas are part of the _______, which lies at the base of the fore brain. A di

substantia nigra, dorsal striatum, basal ganglia, ventrl tegmental area

The ______ theory states that learning is driven by organisms biological need to reduce innate drives to obtain primary reinforcers.

drive reduction theory

In operant conditioning, ___________ is the process of providing outcomes for a behavior that increase the probability of that behavior occuring again in the future, while __________ is the process of providing outcomes that decrease the probability

reinforcement, punishment

________ is the study of how organisms allocate their time nd resources among possible options

behavioral economics

In the operant conditioning technique of ___________, organisms are gradually trained to execute complicated sequences of discrete responses. In the operant conditioning technique of _________, successive approximations to a desired response are reinforce

shaping, chaining

_________ are stimuli such as food and sleep that can function as reinforcers due to their innate biological value to the organism; if these stimuli are paired with other stimuli that have no biological value, those other stimuli can become

primary reinforcers, secondary reinforcers

In a ______ schedule every instance of the response is followed by the consequences; in a ___________ schedule, only some responses are reinforced.

continuous reinforcement, partial reinforcement

An area of the prefrontal cortex, called the ___________, is important for learning to predict which outcomes follow particular responses

orbitofrontal cortex

If an organism expects its favorite reinforce, but receives a less-preferred reinforcer, the phenomenon of ______ predicts that the organism may respond less than if ti had received that less-preferred reinforcer

negative contrast

______ are naturally occuring neurotransmitter like substances that may help signal hedonic value "liking" of reinforces in the brain

endogenous opiods

In a _________ reinforcement schedule, where an organism has a choice between multiple possible responses that may each lead to different outcomes, the _______ predicts the organism will make each response at a rate proportional to how often that response

concurrent, matching law

In the process of ______ organisms learn to make responses in reinforced order to obtain or avoid certain outcomes

operant conditioning

Training paradigms that can cause responses to become less frequent over time inclue __________, in which the reinforcer is taken away after a response, and ________, in which a punisher is provided after a response

negative punishment, positive punishment

In a fixed ratio schedule or reinforcement, organisms typically give bursts of responding leading up to each reinforcement, followed by a _____________ before the next burst begins

postreinforcement pause

___________ refers to the subjective "goodness" of a stimulus. The amount of work an organism will be willing to do to obtain that stimulus depends on the __________ of that stimulus

hedonic value, motivational value

Training paradigms that can cause responses to become more frequent over time include ________, in which the punisher is taken away after a response, and _________, in which a reinforcer is provided after a response

negative reinforcement, positive reinforcement

After training in which a single stimulus (such as a light of a particular color) has been reinforced repeatedly, ___________ around that trained stimulus show a peak, or point of maximal responding, corresponding to the original stimulus on which the ani

generalization gradients

Discrete-representation learning models are useful for describing how organisms learn about highly _______ stimuli, such as a tone and a light, but they don't work as well with stimuli that have some inherent ________, such as lights of different colors

dissimilar; similarity

In Thorndike's view, yellow and yellow-orange are not two totally separate stimuli. Rather, he argued, they are each composed of many distinct elements, some shared and others not shared, much like W.K. Estes and his __________ theory and by David Rumelha

stimulus sampling; connectionists

Two objects or substances that initially seem very similar, or even distinguishable when each is repeatedly paired with a different label, name, or outcome. This is an example of ____________

discrimination training

A transition from easy to hard discrimination learning so as to as to all but eliminate errors is called _________

errorless discrimination learning

The _______ procedure shows that co-occurrence of two stimuli is sufficient to produce meaning-based generalization from on stimulus to the other.

Sensory preconditioning

Negative patterning is just one example of a larger class of learning phenomena that involve configurations of stimuli and that cannot be explained using ________

single layer networks

_______ are physiological, or mental, entities constructed on the basis of our experiences with the world. In contrast, _________ are of the world, a class or division of people or things that have some shared characteristics.

concepts; categories

Many primary sensory cortical areas are organized ___________ in that each region responds preferentially to a particular type of stimulus and neighboring regions respond to similar stimuli

topographically

One key brain region that determines whether a stimulus merits cortical remapping is the __________

nucleus basalis or the amygdala

Animals with hippocampal damage are impaired at tasks that require sensitivity to stimulus-stimulus relationships such as _________ and _________

latent inhibition; sensory preconditioning

People with schizophrenia show abnormalities in the shape of the ____________, most notably an overall smaller volume.

hippocampal region

Although some of our stereotypes are based on personal encounters with members of another group, many stereotypes are acquired through ____________

social communication

Rosch argued that natural categories are adopted when they provide us with value in improving our ability to make ___________ inferences

inductive

Confirming Gluck and Myer's prediction of the hippocampal role in acquired equivalence, Shohamy and Anthony Wagner found that critical hippocampal activity occurs during _____________ rather than __________

learning; activation

Lesions of the ethorhinal cortex (within the hippocampal region), eliminated ________________ in rabbit eye blink conditioning

latent inhibition

Upon activation, the nucleus basalis neurons release _______________, a neurotransmitter that promotes neuronal plasticity

aceylcholine

Richard Thompson's experiments in the 1960s suggested that animals _______________ and have difficulty discriminating various stimuli when their primary sensory cortex is damaged

overgeneralize

If you are asked to think about a typical cat, you can think of a creature with four legs that would enjoy eating meat. This abstract representation is called the category's _________________

protoype

Emotion involves three distinct but interrelated phenomena- _____________, __________, and __________ - that are produced in response to an affecting situation

physiological response; overt behaviors; conscious feelings

The _______ theory of emotion states that conscious emotions stimulate appropriate behaviors and physiological responses. The ______ theory of emotion states that a combination of cognitive appraisal and perception of biological changes together determine

Cannon-Bard; James-Lange; two factor

The ________ is an excessive and irrational fear of an object, place, or situation. One type of therapy includes ________ , in which successive approximations of the fear-evoking stimulus are presented while the patient learns to remain relaxed

phobia; systematic desensitization

The ______ response (which is also known as ___________) is collection of bodily responses, including respiration, and depressed digestion and immune functions, that prepare the body to face a threat, either by facing it down or by running away

fight or flight; arousal

The principle that is easier to retrieve memories that match our current mood or emotional state is known as __________

mood congruency of memory

The _________ is a collection of brain nuclei lying at the anterior tip of each hippocampus and which are critical for learning and expressing emotional responses as well as for mediating the emotional modulation of memory formation.

amygdala

Whereas _________ is an experimental design in which animals learn to make particular responses in order to terminate an aversive stimulus, ___________ is a design in which animals learn to make particular responses in order to prevent exposure to the ave

conditional escape; conditioned avoidance

When we experience emotions such as fear or anger, the ANS releases _______ that help to mediate the fight-or-flight response. Two examples are ________ and ____________

stress hormones; epinephrine; glucocorticoids/cortisol

__________ is psychiatric condition that involves feelings of sadness as well as a general loss of initiative and activity

depression

___________ theories of emotion are theories based on central premise that physiological responses to stimuli come first, and these determine or induce emotions

somatic

The ________ is a cluster of physiological, motor, and conscious reactions that accompany the emotion of fear. An example of a physiological reaction is __________, where mammals' hair stands on end, making the animal look bigger and more threatening than

fear response; piloerection

Any stimulus or event that causes bodily arousal is a form of ______________

stress

_________ is a psychological disorder that can develop after exposure to a horrific event, with symptoms including _________, _________, ___________, and _____________

PTSD; re-experiencing the event, avoidance, emotional numbing, heightened anxiety

________ is a phenomenon in which exposure to an uncontrollable punisher teaches an organism that responses are ineffectual, which in turn reduces the motivation to attempt new avoidance responses.

learned helplessness

A child that copies adults who crazily beat on inflatable dolls provides evidence of ___________ learning because his observations have produced a change in his behavior

social/observational

A toddler who makes a stuffed animal pretend to talk after observing her sibling do this may be _____________ her sibling

copying/imitating

A chimpanzee that learns to open doors by banging them with its feet from seeing humans open doors with their hands is likely showing evidence of _______________

emulation

The two-action test requires training ______________ to serve as models performing a task that observers will be allowed to watch

two individuals

The two-action test has been used by researchers to test whether animals are capable of ____________

true imitation

The ability to imagine what it would be like to be in a commercial requires ______________

perspective taking

The reason that laugh tracks are used so often in sitcoms is because hearing laughter leads to _____________

emotional contagion

If crows learn to attack all clowns after seeing other crows attacking clowns, then this is likely a case of __________

observational conditioning

If one crying baby on an airplane triggers a flurry of crying infants, then this is likely due to _____________

emotional contagion

In observational conditioning, observation of a model produces a(n)

unconditioned emotional response

When a model on a game show waves her arms in front of a prize contestants may win, this may lead to _______________

stimulus enhancement

True imitation differs from __________ in that true imitation requires replicating the actions of a model

emulation

Stimulus enhancement may be mistaken for ___________ because the actions of the observer match the actions of the model

true imitation

One form of imitation that is rare among mammals is ____________

vocal immitation

Birds are important subjects in studies of neural and behavioral social learning because of their _________ ability

vocal learning/song learning

A(n) ________ has the ability to imitate both sounds and actions

human/dolphin

Speech imitation in humans is an example

vocal imitation

The fact that some songbirds raised alone never sing normally is evidence that ______ is important for their song development

vocal learning/social learning

The ________ suggests that songbirds memorize the songs of adults before learning to sing them

template model of song learning

When observer rats learn to perform certain foods from exposure to other rats, this is a case of _______________

social transmission of information

If you take notes in class because other students do, but never actually look at them, then this could be an instance of __________

social conformity

The ___________ states that observations are directly mapped onto motor representations

direct matching hypothesis

Cells that respond when a monkey grabs a stick or sees someone grab a stick are called ______________

mirror neurons

Brain regions in humans that respond similarly when a person performs finger movements or observes finger movements are found in the _______________

frontal lobe

Song learning by birds involves activity in a brain region known as __________

Area X

For social transmission of food preferences to occur normally in rats, their ___________ must be intact

hippocampus/basal forebrain

Children with ASD often report sounds or sentences they have recently heard, a phenomenon known as _______________

echololia

Because individuals with ASD show difficulties performing certain imitation tasks, it has been theorized that they have dysfunctional _________

mirror neurons

Patients with __________ show a tendency to imitate actions involuntary

frontal lobe damage

Findings from Bandura's _________ study have been used to argue that children exposed to violence are more likely to behave violently

Bobo doll

Guttman and Kalsih (1956)

trained pigeons to peck at a yellow light for food reinforcement; showed different light colors in a succession (yellow, green, orange, yellow-green, or yellow-orange); The more different they were from the yellow, the less they respond to the light

Rescorla-Wagner model

details a process a process where an animal of person learns to minimize the difference between what actually happens and their expectation of the outcome

William K Estes

never consider a stimulus as singluar; you never take in the same set of stimuli; stimulus sampling theory

Law of effect

probability of a response to increase or decrease depending on the outcomes that follow

Distributed representations

stimuli are represented by overlapping sets of nodes or stimulus events

Two layer network

what is learned about one stimulus will tend to transfer or generalize to other stimuli that activate some of the same nodes in which you have what you actually see and what your nervous system is interpreting

topographic representations

nodes responding to physically similar stimuli are placed next to each other in the model

Herbert Jenkins (1962)

found that pigeons who received discrimination training showed a different patter of generalization (only responded to tones that were really close to 1000 hz)

learning

the process by which changes in behavior arise as a result of experiences interacting with the world

memory

record of past experiences acquired through learning

Aristotle

had data oriented approach on the formation of linkages between pairs of events, sensations, or idea

John Lock

showed that the mind could be broken down into elements that when combined produced the whole consciousness; all knowledge is derived from experience all children are a blank slate

William James

First psychology teacher at American University; interested in how we learn new habits and acquire new memories

Charles Darwin

argued that species evolve when they possess a trait that meets three conditions

Herman Ebbinghaus

conducted first rigorous experimental studies of human theory; four key stages of memory - learning, delay, test, relearning; retention curve

Ivan Pavlov

classical conditioning; generalization - transfer of past learning to novel events and problem

Edward Thorndike

Law of effect- states that behaviors lead to positive consequences for the animal to persist those that do not tend to die out

John Watson

founder of behaviorism; argued that rats had learned an automatic set of motor habits for moving through the maze and that were independent of sensory cues

Clark Hull

stimulus response learning (S--->R)

B.F. Skinner

radidical behaviorism; function by blindly producing preprogrammed learned responses to environmental stimuli

Edward Tolman

cognitive map; challenged the behaviorist perspective that all learning reflects stimulus response associations

Estes

Cognitive science - interdisciplinary study of thought, reasoning, and other higher mental functions; built on Hulls mathematical modeling approach to develop new methods for interpreting a wide variety of learning behaviors

George Miller

Information theory- communication that provides a precise measure of how much info is contained in a message based not only on the message itself but also on the listeners prior knowledge