Philosophers utilized both _________ and ___________ to gain insight into the abstract principles that govern the universe, as opposed to relying on the ___________ that is characteristic of today's research.
reasoned thought; logical arguments; scientific experimentation
According to Aristotle's principle of _________ we form a strong association between peanut butter and jelly because they appear together very often.
Plato was a proponent of _________, which holds that the bulk of our knowledge is ingrained from birth. His student Aristotle was identified with a school of thought known as ________, which claims our ideas stem from experiences.
The belief that the mind and body exist as separate entities is known as ________. A believer in this principle, __________, reasoned that a sensory stimulus and motor response follow a pathway known as the ___________.
dualism; Descarte; reflex arc
According to Darwin, a trait that can evolve through ________ if it is inheritable, variable, and ________.
natural selection; makes an individual more fit to survive and procreate
The late 1800s saw the birth of __________, as scientists interested in psychology began to conduct systematic experiments examining the validity of a hypothesis through manipulation of variables.
A contemporary of William James, ____________, proposed that the psychology of memory can be defined precisely through mathematical laws as a rigorous natural science.
How memory deteriorates over a time is known as ____________. Measuring how much information is retained at each point in the time following learning, Ebbinghaus was able to plot a ____________.
forgetting; retention curve
Thorndike referred to the training in which organisms learn to make certain responses in order to obtain or avoid important consequences as __________, which is now also known commonly as _________.
instrumental conditioning; operant conditioning
In Pavlov's classic conditioning, an animal or persons learns to associate the __________ with a(n) ____________ so as to produce a(n) __________.
conditioned stimulus; unconditioned stimulus; conditioned response
Emerging in the 1920s, the American approach to learning known as __________ centered around the argument that psychology should exclusively study observable behaviors.
Although the work of __________ is not longer considered relevant today, his students and followers carried on toward developing mathematical equations to explain learning.
In ________'s law of __________, behaviors that lead to desirable consequences are ___________ likely to happen again in the future.
Thorndike; effect; more
Edward Tolman, a neo-behaviorist argued that his rats, intrinsically motivated to learn the general layout of mazes, had formed ________, internal psychological representations of the external world.
Learning that takes place even in the absence of any specific motivation to obtain or avoid important consequences is called _________.
An increasing focus on human abilities such as language, reasoning, and thinking led to the rise of _________ psychology. These abilities are not readily explained by a strict __________ approach.
The trial by trial variability in the elements we attend to when experiencing a stimulus is captured in the ________ of _________.
stimulus sampling theory; Estes
The number of digits in a standard phone number (not including area code) is relevant to the work of ____________.
The importance of looking at individual subjects' performance, not just group averages, was illustrated by the work of _________ on __________.
Gordon Bower; insight learning
The _________ models of cognition suggest that ideas and concepts in the external world are not represented as distinct symbols but as patterns of activity over populations of many nodes. In the models, a ___________ representation consists of the activat
The brain and spinal cord together make up the ___________.
central nervous system
Sensory receptors within your fingers and toes are part of your ________.
peripheral nervous system
The temporal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and frontal lobe are all subdivision of the ________.
The ________ looks like a smaller brain hiding underneath the cerebral cortex.
__________ collect neurotransmitters released from a pre-synaptic neuron.
receptions/dendrites/postsynaptic neurons/presynaptic neurons
Cells other than neurons that are found throughout the brain include _________.
glia; blood cells
A major technique currently used to collect structural images of human brains is __________.
The fact that by nature babies placed underwater do not inhale water is an example of a(n) ___________
Neurons in the ____________ play an important role in the generation and control of motor responses in humans.
MI/primary motor cortex/cerebellum/basal ganglia
The prototypical connections between neurons and between _________ and __________.
A(n) ___________ is a hypothetical physical change in neurons that form the basis of a memory
____________ are a technique for identifying specific brain regions that are more or less active during the performance of particular memory tasks.
If electrodes are attached to a person's head, it is probably because ________ recordings are being collected.
One method for activating neurons in the cerebral cortex of humans without requiring surgery is __________
transcranial magnetic stimulation/slap to the head
Chemical substances that when brought into the body can change how long neurotransmitters can activate receptors in a synapse are called _____________
When connected neurons are firing at the same time, ______________ can result.
synaptic plasticity/Hebbian learning/long-term potentiation
If you are nervous about driving about driving in the rain because you once slid off the road when it was raining, you may have become ________ to driving in the rain.
If you don't mind getting fillings at the dentist because you've had so much dental work in the past, you probably are _________ to dental drills.
If you've become habituated to the beeping of a fire alarm with a low battery near your bedroom then having a crow attack you in your bedroom may ___________ your responses to the beeping.
Researchers can tell when a baby perceives an object as novel by monitoring the duration of its _________.
Repetition of ________ stimuli leads to faster habituation.
A physiological response that researchers sometimes use to monitor the effects of habituation and sensitization is the ___________.
The suggestion that sensitization and habituation are independent processes in a major feature of ______________.
dual process theory
When an organism learns but does not provide observable evidence that learning has occurred , this is referred to as __________
The ________ task makes it possible to determine when a rat is familiar with a particular object.
novel object recognition
Sensitization of the gill-withdrawl reflex in aplysia is associated with increased release of __________ by ___________.
Learning-related changes in the receptive fields of cortical neurons provide evidence of ________.
Blinding an opossum at birth can increase the number of cortical neurons with _____________ receptive fields.
Neurons in the hippocampus that respond strongly in particular locations are called ________
Repeated exposures to stressful events during development can lead to _______
Devices called _______, created to facilitate sensory processing in patients who have lost some sensory function, work better over time because of ________.
sensory prostheses, perceptual learning
The relationship between a US and UR does/does not involve learning
A CR that precedes the US is often a ________ response
In eyeblink conditioning the blink is both a __________ and a __________, although they differ in their ____________
In most conditioning paradigms, extinction is faster/slower than the original acquisition of the conditioned response
__________ conditioned responses in the body are most often the result of a biological mechanism called __________
Evidence that extinction is more than unlearning, comes primarily from studies that look at shifts in _________ between learning and testing
context or timing
When two cues compete to predict a US or other outcome, the one that is most strongly learned is usually the cue that is learned __________ as revealed in studies of blocking
The principle of cue competition in learning arises in the Rescorla-Wagner model, where the association weights of two cues are _______ to generate a prediction of the US
The Rescorla-Wagner model's account of contingency learning depends on viewing the ________ as a conditionable CS
Latent inhibition cannot be explained by the Rescorla-Wagner model because during pre-exposure there is no_______
Beneath the _________ cells of the cerebellar cortex lie the cerebellar deep nuclei, including the ______ nucleus
CS information travels up to the deep nuclei of the cerebellum along axon tracts called the ___________
An airpuff US to the eye activated neurons in the _________, a structure in the lower part of the brainstem.
Punkinje cells inhibit/excite the interpositus nucleus, the major output pathway drivign the conditioned motor response
Animals with the lesions to the cerebellum show CRs, but they are __________
Latent inhibition and other expressions of CS modulation are impaired or eliminated by lesions to the _________
The neural mechanism for habituation is thought to be a progressive decrease in the number of __________ neurotransmitters vesicles available in the sensory neuron's axon
The __________ of the sensory neuron's release of glutamate onto the motor neuron is a presynaptic form of _______
activity-dependent enhancement, synaptic plasticity
Two proteins found inside neurons play critical regulatory roles in the synapse-creation process. The first protein, CREB-1, activates genes in the neuron's nucleus that ________ the growth of new synapses. The second protein CREB-2 ________ the actions o
Rats can be protected from overdose by the ___________ that they learned during the administration of lower doses of heroin in the same setting
Appealing due to its simplicity, the ________ model has proven itself to be a starting point for many promising models of learning
The learning that takes place in order to avoid or minimize the consequences of expected averive events is known as _______
Rescorla demonstrated that conditioning to a tone stimulus depends not only on the frequency of tone-US pairings but also on the frequency of the US in the _______ of the tone. the results of his experiment imply that animals are sensitive to __________:
In operant conditioning ________ signal whether a particular response will lead to a particular outcome
The _________ states that the opportunity to perform a highly frequent behavior can reinforce a less frequent behavior. A later reinforcement, called the __________ hypothesis, suggested that the opportunity to perform any behavior can be reinforcing if a
Premack principle, response deprivation
The ___________ is a part of the brain that helps determine subjective values of punishers, such as whether the intense heat of a chili pepper on the tongue is perceived as pleasurable or painful. The __________ is a part of the brain that helps determine
insula/insular cortex, dorsal anterior cingluate cortex/daCC
A ______ is a strong habit that is maintained despite harmful consequences; if the habit is a behavior, it is called a _________
pathological addiction, behavioral addiction
The part of the brain called the _______ contains dopamine-producing neurons that project to the ___________, which is important for stimulus response learning. Both these brain areas are part of the _______, which lies at the base of the fore brain. A di
substantia nigra, dorsal striatum, basal ganglia, ventrl tegmental area
The ______ theory states that learning is driven by organisms biological need to reduce innate drives to obtain primary reinforcers.
drive reduction theory
In operant conditioning, ___________ is the process of providing outcomes for a behavior that increase the probability of that behavior occuring again in the future, while __________ is the process of providing outcomes that decrease the probability
________ is the study of how organisms allocate their time nd resources among possible options
In the operant conditioning technique of ___________, organisms are gradually trained to execute complicated sequences of discrete responses. In the operant conditioning technique of _________, successive approximations to a desired response are reinforce
_________ are stimuli such as food and sleep that can function as reinforcers due to their innate biological value to the organism; if these stimuli are paired with other stimuli that have no biological value, those other stimuli can become
primary reinforcers, secondary reinforcers
In a ______ schedule every instance of the response is followed by the consequences; in a ___________ schedule, only some responses are reinforced.
continuous reinforcement, partial reinforcement
An area of the prefrontal cortex, called the ___________, is important for learning to predict which outcomes follow particular responses
If an organism expects its favorite reinforce, but receives a less-preferred reinforcer, the phenomenon of ______ predicts that the organism may respond less than if ti had received that less-preferred reinforcer
______ are naturally occuring neurotransmitter like substances that may help signal hedonic value "liking" of reinforces in the brain
In a _________ reinforcement schedule, where an organism has a choice between multiple possible responses that may each lead to different outcomes, the _______ predicts the organism will make each response at a rate proportional to how often that response
concurrent, matching law
In the process of ______ organisms learn to make responses in reinforced order to obtain or avoid certain outcomes
Training paradigms that can cause responses to become less frequent over time inclue __________, in which the reinforcer is taken away after a response, and ________, in which a punisher is provided after a response
negative punishment, positive punishment
In a fixed ratio schedule or reinforcement, organisms typically give bursts of responding leading up to each reinforcement, followed by a _____________ before the next burst begins
___________ refers to the subjective "goodness" of a stimulus. The amount of work an organism will be willing to do to obtain that stimulus depends on the __________ of that stimulus
hedonic value, motivational value
Training paradigms that can cause responses to become more frequent over time include ________, in which the punisher is taken away after a response, and _________, in which a reinforcer is provided after a response
negative reinforcement, positive reinforcement
After training in which a single stimulus (such as a light of a particular color) has been reinforced repeatedly, ___________ around that trained stimulus show a peak, or point of maximal responding, corresponding to the original stimulus on which the ani
Discrete-representation learning models are useful for describing how organisms learn about highly _______ stimuli, such as a tone and a light, but they don't work as well with stimuli that have some inherent ________, such as lights of different colors
In Thorndike's view, yellow and yellow-orange are not two totally separate stimuli. Rather, he argued, they are each composed of many distinct elements, some shared and others not shared, much like W.K. Estes and his __________ theory and by David Rumelha
stimulus sampling; connectionists
Two objects or substances that initially seem very similar, or even distinguishable when each is repeatedly paired with a different label, name, or outcome. This is an example of ____________
A transition from easy to hard discrimination learning so as to as to all but eliminate errors is called _________
errorless discrimination learning
The _______ procedure shows that co-occurrence of two stimuli is sufficient to produce meaning-based generalization from on stimulus to the other.
Negative patterning is just one example of a larger class of learning phenomena that involve configurations of stimuli and that cannot be explained using ________
single layer networks
_______ are physiological, or mental, entities constructed on the basis of our experiences with the world. In contrast, _________ are of the world, a class or division of people or things that have some shared characteristics.
Many primary sensory cortical areas are organized ___________ in that each region responds preferentially to a particular type of stimulus and neighboring regions respond to similar stimuli
One key brain region that determines whether a stimulus merits cortical remapping is the __________
nucleus basalis or the amygdala
Animals with hippocampal damage are impaired at tasks that require sensitivity to stimulus-stimulus relationships such as _________ and _________
latent inhibition; sensory preconditioning
People with schizophrenia show abnormalities in the shape of the ____________, most notably an overall smaller volume.
Although some of our stereotypes are based on personal encounters with members of another group, many stereotypes are acquired through ____________
Rosch argued that natural categories are adopted when they provide us with value in improving our ability to make ___________ inferences
Confirming Gluck and Myer's prediction of the hippocampal role in acquired equivalence, Shohamy and Anthony Wagner found that critical hippocampal activity occurs during _____________ rather than __________
Lesions of the ethorhinal cortex (within the hippocampal region), eliminated ________________ in rabbit eye blink conditioning
Upon activation, the nucleus basalis neurons release _______________, a neurotransmitter that promotes neuronal plasticity
Richard Thompson's experiments in the 1960s suggested that animals _______________ and have difficulty discriminating various stimuli when their primary sensory cortex is damaged
If you are asked to think about a typical cat, you can think of a creature with four legs that would enjoy eating meat. This abstract representation is called the category's _________________
Emotion involves three distinct but interrelated phenomena- _____________, __________, and __________ - that are produced in response to an affecting situation
physiological response; overt behaviors; conscious feelings
The _______ theory of emotion states that conscious emotions stimulate appropriate behaviors and physiological responses. The ______ theory of emotion states that a combination of cognitive appraisal and perception of biological changes together determine
Cannon-Bard; James-Lange; two factor
The ________ is an excessive and irrational fear of an object, place, or situation. One type of therapy includes ________ , in which successive approximations of the fear-evoking stimulus are presented while the patient learns to remain relaxed
phobia; systematic desensitization
The ______ response (which is also known as ___________) is collection of bodily responses, including respiration, and depressed digestion and immune functions, that prepare the body to face a threat, either by facing it down or by running away
fight or flight; arousal
The principle that is easier to retrieve memories that match our current mood or emotional state is known as __________
mood congruency of memory
The _________ is a collection of brain nuclei lying at the anterior tip of each hippocampus and which are critical for learning and expressing emotional responses as well as for mediating the emotional modulation of memory formation.
Whereas _________ is an experimental design in which animals learn to make particular responses in order to terminate an aversive stimulus, ___________ is a design in which animals learn to make particular responses in order to prevent exposure to the ave
conditional escape; conditioned avoidance
When we experience emotions such as fear or anger, the ANS releases _______ that help to mediate the fight-or-flight response. Two examples are ________ and ____________
stress hormones; epinephrine; glucocorticoids/cortisol
__________ is psychiatric condition that involves feelings of sadness as well as a general loss of initiative and activity
___________ theories of emotion are theories based on central premise that physiological responses to stimuli come first, and these determine or induce emotions
The ________ is a cluster of physiological, motor, and conscious reactions that accompany the emotion of fear. An example of a physiological reaction is __________, where mammals' hair stands on end, making the animal look bigger and more threatening than
fear response; piloerection
Any stimulus or event that causes bodily arousal is a form of ______________
_________ is a psychological disorder that can develop after exposure to a horrific event, with symptoms including _________, _________, ___________, and _____________
PTSD; re-experiencing the event, avoidance, emotional numbing, heightened anxiety
________ is a phenomenon in which exposure to an uncontrollable punisher teaches an organism that responses are ineffectual, which in turn reduces the motivation to attempt new avoidance responses.
A child that copies adults who crazily beat on inflatable dolls provides evidence of ___________ learning because his observations have produced a change in his behavior
A toddler who makes a stuffed animal pretend to talk after observing her sibling do this may be _____________ her sibling
A chimpanzee that learns to open doors by banging them with its feet from seeing humans open doors with their hands is likely showing evidence of _______________
The two-action test requires training ______________ to serve as models performing a task that observers will be allowed to watch
The two-action test has been used by researchers to test whether animals are capable of ____________
The ability to imagine what it would be like to be in a commercial requires ______________
The reason that laugh tracks are used so often in sitcoms is because hearing laughter leads to _____________
If crows learn to attack all clowns after seeing other crows attacking clowns, then this is likely a case of __________
If one crying baby on an airplane triggers a flurry of crying infants, then this is likely due to _____________
In observational conditioning, observation of a model produces a(n)
unconditioned emotional response
When a model on a game show waves her arms in front of a prize contestants may win, this may lead to _______________
True imitation differs from __________ in that true imitation requires replicating the actions of a model
Stimulus enhancement may be mistaken for ___________ because the actions of the observer match the actions of the model
One form of imitation that is rare among mammals is ____________
Birds are important subjects in studies of neural and behavioral social learning because of their _________ ability
vocal learning/song learning
A(n) ________ has the ability to imitate both sounds and actions
Speech imitation in humans is an example
The fact that some songbirds raised alone never sing normally is evidence that ______ is important for their song development
vocal learning/social learning
The ________ suggests that songbirds memorize the songs of adults before learning to sing them
template model of song learning
When observer rats learn to perform certain foods from exposure to other rats, this is a case of _______________
social transmission of information
If you take notes in class because other students do, but never actually look at them, then this could be an instance of __________
The ___________ states that observations are directly mapped onto motor representations
direct matching hypothesis
Cells that respond when a monkey grabs a stick or sees someone grab a stick are called ______________
Brain regions in humans that respond similarly when a person performs finger movements or observes finger movements are found in the _______________
Song learning by birds involves activity in a brain region known as __________
For social transmission of food preferences to occur normally in rats, their ___________ must be intact
Children with ASD often report sounds or sentences they have recently heard, a phenomenon known as _______________
Because individuals with ASD show difficulties performing certain imitation tasks, it has been theorized that they have dysfunctional _________
Patients with __________ show a tendency to imitate actions involuntary
frontal lobe damage
Findings from Bandura's _________ study have been used to argue that children exposed to violence are more likely to behave violently
Guttman and Kalsih (1956)
trained pigeons to peck at a yellow light for food reinforcement; showed different light colors in a succession (yellow, green, orange, yellow-green, or yellow-orange); The more different they were from the yellow, the less they respond to the light
details a process a process where an animal of person learns to minimize the difference between what actually happens and their expectation of the outcome
William K Estes
never consider a stimulus as singluar; you never take in the same set of stimuli; stimulus sampling theory
Law of effect
probability of a response to increase or decrease depending on the outcomes that follow
stimuli are represented by overlapping sets of nodes or stimulus events
Two layer network
what is learned about one stimulus will tend to transfer or generalize to other stimuli that activate some of the same nodes in which you have what you actually see and what your nervous system is interpreting
nodes responding to physically similar stimuli are placed next to each other in the model
Herbert Jenkins (1962)
found that pigeons who received discrimination training showed a different patter of generalization (only responded to tones that were really close to 1000 hz)
the process by which changes in behavior arise as a result of experiences interacting with the world
record of past experiences acquired through learning
had data oriented approach on the formation of linkages between pairs of events, sensations, or idea
showed that the mind could be broken down into elements that when combined produced the whole consciousness; all knowledge is derived from experience all children are a blank slate
First psychology teacher at American University; interested in how we learn new habits and acquire new memories
argued that species evolve when they possess a trait that meets three conditions
conducted first rigorous experimental studies of human theory; four key stages of memory - learning, delay, test, relearning; retention curve
classical conditioning; generalization - transfer of past learning to novel events and problem
Law of effect- states that behaviors lead to positive consequences for the animal to persist those that do not tend to die out
founder of behaviorism; argued that rats had learned an automatic set of motor habits for moving through the maze and that were independent of sensory cues
stimulus response learning (S--->R)
radidical behaviorism; function by blindly producing preprogrammed learned responses to environmental stimuli
cognitive map; challenged the behaviorist perspective that all learning reflects stimulus response associations
Cognitive science - interdisciplinary study of thought, reasoning, and other higher mental functions; built on Hulls mathematical modeling approach to develop new methods for interpreting a wide variety of learning behaviors
Information theory- communication that provides a precise measure of how much info is contained in a message based not only on the message itself but also on the listeners prior knowledge