Personality Chapter 4 Vocabulary


broad term that encompasses the psychological views and the psychotherapeutic methods attributed to Sigmund Freud and his followers


psychological activities not open to direct rational scrutiny but that influence individual experience and behavior


in psychoanalysis, the component of the psyche that is guided by the reality principle and makes compromises between the id and the environment

pleasure principle

a demand that an instinctual need be immediately gratified

reality principle

the realization of the demands of the environment (which is, mostly, the social world) and the adjustment of behavior to these demands


in psychoanalysis, energy of the sexual drive or an erotic desire common in women and men


in psychoanalysis, all the tendencies that strive toward the integration of a living substance

death wish (death instinct; death drive)

the repressed instinctual tendency that leads towards destruction


death" in ancient greek; According to Freud, striving for destruction, humiliation, pain, and death


in psychoanalysis, component of the psyche that contains inborn biological drives (the death wish and the life instinct); seeks immediate gratification of its impulses


in psychoanalysis, the moral guide that passes on imperatives regarding appropriate or inappropriate actions and thoughts


person undergoing psychoanalysis; psychoanalyst's patient/client

organ inferiority

in Adler's view, refers to a wide range of physical problems that become psychological impediments


in Adler's vocabulary, attempts to overcome the discomfort and negative experiences caused by a person's feelings of inferiority


in Adler's vocabulary, the type of individual who overcomes the old inferiority problems and achieves success and happiness

striving towards superiority

in Adler's view, an individual's vigorous exertion or effect to achieve security, improvement, control, and conquest

social interest

in Adler's view, the desire to be connected with other people and to adapt positively to the perceived social environment

style of life

in alder's view, a technique for dealing with one's inadequacies and inferiorities and for gaining social status

analytical psychology

Jung called his view this in order to distinguish them from Freud's

collective unconscious

in Jung's theory, an impersonal layer in the human psyche that is different from the individual unconscious, as well as inherited and shared with other members of the species


according to Jung, the content of the collective unconscious that consist of images of the primordial (elemental, ancient) character; these manifest in 3 universal ways: dreams, fantasies, and delusions


In Eysenck's system, this is characterized by talkativeness, positive emotions, and the need to seek external sources of stimulation


In Jung's view, this happens when a person attaches his or her psychological energy back to self


in Jung's view, the process of fulfilling an individual's potential by integrating opposites into a harmonious while and by getting away from the aimlessness of life (a condition most of his patients were suffering from)

transpersonal psychology

a theoretical and applied field that focuses on spiritual and transcendent states of consciousness


the genre of historical and biography based on psychoanalysis