from the Greek word meaning "dried-up body"; system consists of bones, joints, cartilages, and ligaments.
the bones that form the longitudinal axis of the body.
the bones of the limbs and girdles.
dense and looks smooth and homogeneous.
composed of small needlelike pieces of bone and lots of open space.
formation of blood cells
typically longer than they are wide; have a shaft with heads at both ends; mostly compact bone; all bones of the limbs except wrist and ankle bones.
generally cube-shaped and contain mostly spongy bone; bones of wrist and ankle, patella (sesamoid)
thin, flattened, usually curved; two thin layers of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone between them; skull, ribs, sternum.
Do not fit into any of the other bone categories, made up of both spongy and compact bone; vertebrae and hip bones.
shaft of a long bone, makes up most of its length.
covers and protects diaphysis, fibrous connective tissue membrane.
secure the periosteum to the underlying bone
end of a long bone; thin layer of compact bone enclosing an area filled with spongy bone.
covers external surfaces of epiphyses; glassy hyaline cartilage that provides smooth, slippery surface to decrease friction at joint surfaces.
remnant of epiphyseal (growth) plate
growth plate; flat plate of hyaline cartilage seen in young, growing bones. lengthwise growth of a long bone, replaced by bone by end of puberty.
medullary cavity (yellow marrow)
cavity inside the shaft where adipose tissue is stored in adults; forms blood cells in infants
confined to the cavities of spongy bone of flat bones and the epiphyses of some long bones
mature bone cells
small cavities in bone that contain osteocytes
concentric circles of lacunae
one of a network of tubes running through compact bone that contains blood vessels and nerves
central canal and matrix rings consisting of Haversian canals (Haversian system)
tiny canals, radiate outward from the central canals to all lacunae; form a transport system that connects all the bone cells to the nutrient supply through the hard bone matrix.
run into the compact bone at right angles to the shaft.
large, rounded projection; may be roughened
Narrow ridge of bone; usually prominent
very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process. (The only examples are on the femur)
Narrow ridge of bone; less prominent than a crest
small, rounded projection or process.
Raised area on or above a condyle
spine (of bone)
sharp, slender, often pointed projection
any bony prominence
head (of bone)
bony expansion carried on a narrow neck
smooth, nearly flat articular surface
rounded articular projection
armlike bar of bone
Cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane
Shallow, basinlike depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface
narrow, slitlike opening
round or oval opening through a bone
process of bone formation
cover the bone ends at movable joints
Growth by forming new layers on the surface of pre-existing layers; process of increasing in thickness rather than length.
bone breaks into many fragments; particularly common in the aged, whose bones are more brittle
bone is crushed; common in porous bones (i.e., osteoporotic bones)
broken bone portion is pressed inward; typical of skill fracture
broken bone ends are forced into each other; commonly occurs when one attempts to break a fall with outstretched arms.
ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone; common sports fracture.
bone breaks incompletely, much in the way a green twig breaks; common in children, whose bones are more flexible than those of adults.
giant bone-destroying cells
excessive calcium in the blood
(bruise) mass of clotted blood showing through skin
cartilage that contains fibrous bundles of collagen, such as that of the intervertebral disks in the spinal cord.
this forms during fracture repair when the fibrocartilage is converted to spongy bone; lasts 3-4 months
primary curvatures of spine
spinal curvatures in the thoracic and sacral regions; present when we are born.
secondary curvatures of spine
develop after birth, cervical curvature and lumbar curvature
Areas where two or more bones join together
a cord of fibrous tissue that connects bones
an immovable joint
a slightly movable joint
a freely movable joint
The connecting fibers are longer than those of sutures; thus the joint has more "give"; joint connecting distal ends of tibia and fibula
flattened fibrous sacs lined with synovial membrane and containing a thin film of synovial fluid; bags of lubricant that act like ball bearings to reduce friction between adjacent structures during joint activity; common where ligaments, muscles, skin, te
the articular surfaces are essentially flat, and only short slipping or gliding movements are allowed; nonaxial movements; intercarpal joints of the wrist
the cylindrical end of one bone fits into a trough-shaped surface on another bone; uniaxial; elbow joint, ankle joint, joints b/w phalanges of fingers
Knuckle-like"; The egg-shaped articular surface of one bone fits into an oval concavity in another; allow the bone to move from side to side and back and forth; biaxial; knuckle joints
each articular surface has both convex and concave areas; biaxial; carpometacarpal joints in thumb
head fits into socket; movement in all axes; shoulder, hip
inflammation of the joints
the most common form of arthritis; chronic degenerative condition that typically affects the aged. affects articular cartilages
chronic inflammatory disorder; onset is insidious and usually occurs b/w age 40 and 50; autoimmune disease
a disease in which uric acid (a normal waste product of nucleic acid metabolism) accumulates in the blood and may be deposited as needle-shaped crystals in the soft tissues of joints.
an increased softening of the bone resulting from a gradual decrease in rate of bone formation; a common condition in older people.