Biology Ch. 34 Test

____ ____ ____ is found in vertebrates but not in invertebrates.

dorsal nerve cord

Which is not a vertebrate adaption to life on land?
Lungs, internal fertilization, endoskeleton, brain


The acoelomate body type is exemplified by ______.


Name two deuterostome phyla.

echinoderms and chordates

Compare the symmetry between Porifera and Cnidaria.

The phylum Porifera have asymmetry. The phylum Cnidaria have radial symmetry.

An animals's ability to move results from the interrelationship between ____ tissue and _____ tissue.

nervous; muscle

Do sponges have germ layers? cnidarians? vertebrates? chordates?

no, yes, yes, yes

How do body cavities aid in an animal's movement?

They provide a firm structure against which muscles can contract.

Name 3 structural features that are used to classify animals.

symmetry, germ layer number, and body cavity

The moist skin of an amphibian functions as a ______ ______.

respiratory organ

The eggs of different animal species vary greatly in size, depending on what?

how long the food supply in the yolk must last

What type of cleavage do protostomes have? deuterostomes?

spiral; radial

Protostomes undergo what kind of coelom formation? Deuterostomes?

schizocoely; enterocoely

division of a body into units


What is cell specialization? Name 2 types of different cells and their function.

Cell specialization is the adaption of a cell for a particular function. White blood cells fight off infection and red blood cells carry oxygen throughout your body.

the respiratory organ where gas exchange occurs


the back side of an organism


in animals, a cavity between the mesoderm and the endoderm


process in which the animal is hatched with the same appearance as the adult.

direct development

the top of a bilaterally symmetrical animal


a neural tube dorsal to the notochord

dorsal nerve cord

a large cavity in an embryo that will function like the gut


in animals, a body plan in which the left and right sides mirror each other

bilateral symmetry

the central cavity of a blastula


the bottom of a bilaterally symmetrical organism


an animal with a backbone


an animal with no coelom, or body cavity


the front end of a bilaterally symmetrical organism


name referring to the notochord in the dorsal part of the body


the system the distributes oxygen and nutrients to the cells in the body

circulatory system

the divisions of the zygote immediately following fertilization


a system in which blood contained within vessels

closed circulatory system

The _____ is a fluid-filled cavity that develops within the mesoderm


the in-folded region of the blastula


a hollow ball of cells that forms early in the reproductive cycle


connection between cells that holds them together as a unit

cell junctions

an organ specialized for the exchange of gases in water


an internal skeleton


hard external covering of some invertebrates to protect and support


digestive tract


an organism that produces both male and female gametes


animals with an intermediate larval stage

indirect development

the taking in of organic material


What is an integument and give 3 examples.

An integument is an outer covering of an animal. Ex: skin, feathers, and fur.

an animal without a backbone


an excretory organ in which wastes are filtered from the blood


free-living, immature form of an organism


a system in which the circulatory fluid is not contained entirely within vessels.

open circulatory system

in deuterostomes, the division of cells

radial cleavage

the method of coelom formation in protostomes


the cup-shaped embryo formed as the blastula folds inward


a cell that transmits electrical signals


Concentration of sensory organs at the anterior end is called _______.


What is cell differentiation?

Cell differentiation is when cells become different from each other to start specialization.

What is a notochord, and what replaces it in most vertebrate species?

A notochord is a firm, flexible rod of tissue along the dorsal part of the body. The notochord eventually develops into the backbone.

What does the dorsal nerve cord develop into in most vertebrate species?

brain and spinal cord

List the 3 germ layers and what each gives rise to in the developing organism.

Endoderm: lungs, gills, kidney, pancreas, liver
Mesoderm: muscular system, heart, bones, circulatory system, skeletal system
Ectoderm: skin, nails, hair, nervous system, brain, eyes

List 4 characteristics of animals

eukaryotic, diploid cells, movement, multicellular

What is a protostome and what is a deuterostome?

P: blastopore develops into a mouth first and then an anus; Ex: mollusks, annelids, and arthropods
D: blastopore develops into an anus first and then a mouth; Ex: chordates and echinoderms

T/F: Earthworms are bilaterally symmetrical and cephalized.


T/F: The fluid-filled pseudocoelom of roundworms holds the body erect.


T/F:The fluid in the body cavity of an animal acts to transport nutrient and wastes.


T/F: All chordates retain their postanal tail in their adult life.


T/F: Terrestrial animals have a protective covering that helps prevent excessive water loss.


T/F: In a cnidarian, endoderm forms the outer tissue and nervous system.


T/F: Germ layers are found in all animals.


T/F: Without exception, all animals are heterotrophic.


T/F: All chordates are classified as vertebrates.


T/F: The development of an animals's body plan depends on environment, rather than genetic information.


T/F: The vast majority of animals today are terrestrial.


T/F: Segmentation occurs in the bodies of annelids and arthropods but it is not present in chordates.


An advantage of a long digestive tract is that it provides a large area where nutrients are absorbed.


Animals probably evolved from ______ _______.

heterotrophic protists

Modern organisms that are thought to resemble the earliest animals are ______ ______.

colonial protists

What type of symmetry do the following animals have?
sponges, jellyfish, butterflies, earthworms, humans, hydra

asymmetry, radial, bilateral, bilateral, bilateral, radial