Microbiology

What type of immunity results from vaccination?A) innate
immunityB) naturally acquired active immunityC) naturally
acquired passive immunityD) artificially acquired active
immunityE) artificially acquired passive immunity

D

What type of immunity results from transfer of antibodies from one
individual to a susceptibleindividual by means of
injection?A) innate immunityB) naturally acquired active
immunityC) naturally acquired passive immunityD)
artificially acquired active immunityE) artificially acquired
passive immunity

E

What type of immunity results from recovery from mumps?A)
innate immunityB) naturally acquired active immunityC)
naturally acquired passive immunityD) artificially acquired
active immunityE) artificially acquired passive immunity

B

Which of the following is the best definition of epitope?A)
specific regions on antigens that interact with T-cell
receptorsB) specific regions on antigens that interact with MHC
class moleculesC) specific regions on antigens that interact
with haptensD) specific regions on antigens that interact with
antibodiesE) specific regions on antigens that interact with perforin

D

Newborns� immunity due to the transfer of antibodies across the
placenta is an example ofA) innate immunity.B) naturally
acquired active immunity.C) naturally acquired passive
immunity.D) artificially acquired active immunity.E)
artificially acquired passive immunity

C

Which of the following statements is NOT a possible outcome of
antigen-antibody reaction?A) clonal deletionB) activation
of complementC) opsonizationD) ADCCE) agglutination

A

Which of the following cells is NOT an APC?A) dentritic
cellsB) macrophagesC) mature B cellsD) natural
killer cellsE) None of the answers is correct; all of these are APCs.

D

When an antibody binds to a toxin, the resulting action is referred
to asA) agglutination.B) opsonization.C)
ADCC.D) apoptosis.E) neutralization.

E

CD4+ T cells are activated byA) interaction between CD4+ and
MHC II.B) interaction between TCRs and MHC II.C) cytokines
released by dendritic cells.D) cytokines released by B
cells.E) complement.

A

Which of the following recognizes antigens displayed on host cells
with MHC II?A) TC cellB) B cellC) TH cellD)
natural killer cellE) basophil

C

The specificity of an antibody is due toA) its valence.B)
the H chains.C) the L chains.D) the constant portions of
the H and L chains.E) the variable portions of the H and L chains.

E

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of B cells?A)
They originate in bone marrow.B) They have antibodies on their
surfaces.C) They are responsible for the memory
response.D) They are responsible for antibody formation.E)
They recognize antigens associated with MHC I.

E

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of cellular
immunity?A) The cells originate in bone marrow.B) Cells
are processed in the thymus gland.C) It can inhibit the immune
response.D) B cells make antibodies.E) T cells react with antigens.

D

Plasma cells are activated by a(n)A) antigen.B) T
cell.C) B cell.D) memory cell.E) APC.

A

The antibodies found in mucus, saliva, and tears areA)
IgG.B) IgM.C) IgA.D) IgD.E) IgE.

C

The antibodies found almost entirely and only on the surface of B
cells (not secreted from them),and which always exist as
monomers, areA) IgG.B) IgM.C) IgA.D)
IgD.E) IgE.

D

The antibodies that can bind to large parasites areA)
IgG.B) IgM.C) IgA.D) IgD.E) IgE

E

In addition to IgG, the antibodies that can fix complement
areA) IgM.B) IgA.C) IgD.D) IgE.E) None
of the answers is correct

A

Large antibodies that agglutinate antigens areA) IgG.B)
IgM.C) IgA.D) IgD.E) IgE.

B

The most abundant class of antibodies in serum isA)
IgG.B) IgM.C) IgA.D) IgD.E) IgE.

A

In Figure 17.1, which letter on the graph indicates the patient�s
secondary response to a repeated exposure with the identical
antigen?A) aB) bC) cD) dE) e

C

In Figure 17.1, which letter on the graph indicates the highest
antibody titer during the patient�s response to a second and
distinct/different antigen?A) aB) bC) cD)
dE) e

E

In Figure 17.1, the arrow at time (c) indicatesA) the time of
exposure to the same antigen as at time (a).B) the secondary
response.C) the primary response.D) exposure to a new
antigen.E) the T-cell response.

B

Which of the following statements is FALSE?A) The variable
region of a heavy chain is partially responsible for binding with
antigen.B) The variable region of a light chain is partially
responsible for binding with antigen.C) The Fc region attaches
to a host cell.D) The constant region of a heavy chain is the
same for all antibodies.E) All of the answers are correct.

D

Which of the following is the best definition of antigen?A)
something foreign in the bodyB) a chemical that elicits an
antibody response and can combine with these antibodiesC) a
chemical that combines with antibodiesD) a pathogenE) a
protein that combines with antibodies

B

Which of the following WBCs are NOT lymphocytes?A) cytotoxic T
cellsB) helper T cellsC) NK cellsD) M cellsE)
B cells

D

The following events elicit an antibody response. What is the third
step?A) Antigen-digest goes to surface of APC.B) APC
phagocytizes antigen.C) B cell is activated.D) TH cell
recognizes antigen-digest and MHC II.E) TH cell produces cytokines.

D

The following events elicit an antibody response. What is the third
step?A) Antigen-digest goes to surface of APC.B) APC
phagocytizes antigen.C) B cell is activated.D) TH cell
recognizes antigen-digest and MHC II.E) TH cell produces cytokines.

D

In Figure 17.2, which areas are different for all IgM
antibodies?A) a and bB) a and cC) b and cD) c
and d

A

In Figure 17.2, which areas represent antigen-binding sites?A)
a and bB) a and cC) b and cD) c and dE) b and d

A

In Figure 17.2, what portion will typically attach to a host
cell?A) a and cB) bC) b and cD) a and
dE) e

E

hich of the following bacterial components would most likely result
in B cell stimulation by Tindependent antigens?A)
capsuleB) flagellumC) piliD) ribosomeE) plasmid

A

The presence of which of the following indicates a current infection
rather than a previousinfection or vaccination?A)
IgAB) IgGC) IgMD) IgDE) IgE

C

Which of the following destroys virus-infected cells?A)
CTLB) TregC) THD) dendritic cellsE) B cells

A

The following events occur in cellular immunity, leading to a
response from TH cells. What is the third step?A) Antibodies are
produced.B) Dendritic cell takes up antigen.C) Antigen
enters M cell.D) TH cell produces cytokines.E) TH cells proliferate.

E

Cytokines released by TH1 cellsA) activate CD8+ cells to
CTLs.B) convert TH1 cells to TH2 cells.C) convert TH2
cells to TH1 cells.D) kill parasites.E) convert B cells to
T cells.

A

Which one of the following causes transmembrane channels in target
cells?A) granzymesB) haptenC) IL-1D)
IL-2E) perforin

E

At a minimum, the human immune system is capable of recognizing
approximately how manydifferent antigens?A) 105B)
1010C) 1015D) 1020E) 1025

C

Thymic selectionA) destroys T cells that do not recognize
self-molecules of MHC.B) destroys B cells that make antibodies
against self.C) destroys MHC molecules.D) destroys CD4+
cells that attack self.E) activates B cells.

A

Which of the following statements about natural killer cells is
FALSE?A) They destroy virus-infected cells.B) They destroy
tumor cells.C) They destroy cells lacking MHC I.D) They
are stimulated by an antigen.E) None of the answers are correct;
all of these statements are true

D

An antibody�s Fc region can be bound byA) antibodies.B)
macrophages.C) T helper cells.D) B cells.E) CTLs.

B

A Treg cell deficiency could result inA) increased number of
viral infections.B) increased number of bacterial
infections.C) autoimmunity.D) increased severity of
bacterial infections.E) transplant rejection.

C

ADCC is a process that is most effective in destroyingA)
eukaryotic pathogens.B) prions.C) extracellular
viruses.D) bacterial pathogens.E) bacterial toxins.

A

IL-2, produced by TH cells,A) activates macrophages.B)
stimulates TH cell maturation.C) causes phagocytosis.D)
activates antigen-presenting cells.E) activates TC cells to CTLs

B

Which of the following statements about IL-12 is FALSE?A) It
activates macrophages.B) It inhibits some tumor cells.C)
It activates the TH1 pathway.D) It causes autoimmune
diseases.E) It causes TH cells to respond to HIV

D