Biology II Lab (Quiz #3)

Protostomes

by its embryonic development, in which the first opening in the
embryo becomes the mouth. ( eight-cell stage/ spiral cleavage)

Deuterostomes

the first opening (the blastopore) becomes the anus. (radial
cleavage/ forming digestive tube)

What phylum are roundworms?

Phylum Nematodes

Characteristics of roundworms ?

Nonsegmented pseudocoelomates covered by a tough cuticle.

What are the important role of decompostion?

nematodes accelerate the decomposition process. Their feeding
recycles minerals and other nutrients from bacteria, fungi, and other
substrates and returns them to the soil where they are accessible to
plant roots.

Name the parasite of Nematoda - roundworm in humans and plants?

Trichinella spirilis-> endoparasites

Most species-rich and morphologically diverse group in the
lophotrochozoa is?

Mollusca (Mollusks)

Clade of protostome animals within the Spiralia is?

Lophotrochozoa (Ex. Trochophore larvae)

Which animals can be found in the Phylum of Mollusks?

snails, oyster, octopus, scallops, slugs

what are the characteristics of Mullusks?

marine, freshwater, and terrestrial
have four lineages
all have similar body plan ( muscular foot, visceral mass, and a mantle)
rasping organ= radula

Muscular foot is for?

movement

viceral mass contain?

most internal organs

a mantle is?

the tissue that drapes over the visceral mass and secretes the shell

The 4 lineage are?

Polyplacephora, Gastropods, Bivalva, and cephalopods

chitons have 8 calcium carbonate plates along their dorsal side, has
a radula to scrape of algae and reproduce sexual and external. Belong
to the class of?

Polyplacophora class

Snails, slugs, and nudibranchs, which have a large muscular foot on
their ventral side (move by gliding and lack of shell) are under which phylum?

Gastropoda class

gastropods shell characteristics?

exoskeleton- for protection, secreted by special organ- mantle, can
be righ or left handed.. different shapes.

Clams, mussels, scallops, oyster- two separate shells that are
hinged, reproduce sexially, and live in ocean and some are in fresh
water are?

Bivalves

squid, nautilus, octopuses, which have a well-developed head and a
foot modified to form tentacles. Also have large brains and eyes with
sophisticated lenses and reduced shell are?

cephalopoda class

Segmented worms, live in the sea, freshwater, and damp soil are in
which phylum?

Phylum of Annelids

Annelids phylums are divided into which classes?

oligochaeta -earthworm
polychaeta- polychates
hirudinae- leeches

earthworm are in which class?

oligochaeta

oligochaeta characteristics are?

reduced head
bristle made of chitin called chaetae

earthwaorm eath the wai through the soil which does what?

extract nutrients as the soil maves through the alimentary canal.
which help the earth, making earthworms valuable to

class polychaeta (segmented worms- marine mostly) characteristics?

wormlike, member of Polychaeta posses paddlelike parapodia (almost
feet) that function as gilld and aid in locomotion.

leeches belong to what phylum?

Hirudinea

Hirudines phylum characteristics?

blood-sucking parasites
can be predators to protists
secrete an anesthetic to numb they prey and an anticoagulant

have a segmented body and jointed appendages, a usually chitinous
exoskeleton molted at intervals, and a dorsal anterior brain connected
to a ventral chain of ganglia

Arthropoda

which are the 3 phylum of arthropods?

arachnida, crustacea, and unaramia

insecta class described which animal?

insects

insecta class means?

jointed appendages, antenna, molt

diplopod class described which animal?

millipede

chilopod class described which animal?

centipede

unaramia has 3 classes which are?

chilopod diplopod insecta

centipede, millipede, insects belongs to which phyla under arthropods?

unaramia

crustacea phylum has which type of animals?

lobsters and crabs

crustacea class means?

jointed appendages but boracic, antenna, mot

Arachnida phyla are what type of animals?

spiders

arachnida class means?

no antenna, molt, jointed appendages

unaramia, arachnids, and crustaceans are ?

arthropoda

the following subphylum Chelicerata, merostonata, crustacea,
hexapoda, and insecta belongs to which phylum?

arthropoda

such as spiders, scorpions and horse crab belongs to which subphylum
and phylum?

Chelicerata and arthropoda

horseshoe crab belong to which phylum?

Phylum Xiphosura

characteristics class characteristics?

have modified mouth
mouth parts: chelicerae -fangs / pedipalps -feelers

spiders fangs are called?

fangs- all spiders are poisonous, some just can't penetrate the skin

spiders feelers are called?

pedipalps -very sort, right up front

arachnids Phalangida type are?

daddy longlegs, not spiders, not poisons have no fangs, are
herbivores chew on leaves

which subphylum are the crayfish, rollie-pollies, shrimps, lobsters?

crustaceans

unirania which contain which type of animal

centipedes and millipedes

centipedes are

all predator
fangs are modified legs up under the head
can get very lager in the tropical areas
1 set of leg per segment

mellipede are

all are junk feeder

make cyanide gas when threatened
2 set of leg per segment

subphylum hexapoda

insects which includes grasshopper, butterflies, beetles, and many others

hexapoda has 3 body regions

head thorax abdomen

hexapoda can fly by

two pair of wings

insect mimicry

look like something else as a protective measure

examples of mimicry

Coral snake is poisonous, kind snake is not
�Not true mimicry�
In order for the mimicry to be successful the poisonous snake has to
be more numerous than the mimic�Probably warning colors

�Blending into evnvironment�Most common type

camouflage
Ex: walking stick or preying mantis
�Walking stick to protect from predators
�Preying mantis is predator but uses it for stealth in hunting

batesian camouflage

model=toxic
mimic= harmless
population of model has to be higher than of mimic
found in many butterflies
ex. monarch and viceroy

The Viceroy caterpillar will mimic both

the Monarch and the Queen butterfly depending on which is more
populous in the area

fly and wasp mimic the what?

tarantula hawk

mullarian mimicry

do both model and mimic are toxic
don't know which is which
have developed the same body, colors, and toxicity

2 main type insect can mimic

pigment and structure

in the color, pigment which is the molecule within the cuticle that
is that specific color

#NAME?

structure is develop by

surface cuticle itself, color reflect light off the shell and ridges

phylum echinoderms have which animals?

sea stars

deuterostomes are

echinoderm and chordates

Chordates and echinoderms share characteristics of deuterostomes,
which are?

#NAME?

echinoderms are

slow moving or sessile marine animals

sea star have

a water vascular system

how does the water vascular system works?

a network of hydraulic canals branching into tube feet that function
in locomotion, feeding, and gas exchange

echinoderms has 6 classes which are

asteroidea ophiuroidea echinoidea
crinoidea holothuroidea concentricycloidea

sea stars belongs to which class?

Asteroidea
they have multiples arms radiation from a disk

sea urchins and sand dollars, from asteroidea class, have ?

no arms
have five rows of tube feet that function movement

Phylum of chordata can be characterized by

a dorsal hollow nerve cord
a notochord
pharyngeal slits
post anal tail

phylum of choradata has 3 subphylum which are?

subphylum Urochordata subphylum Cephalochordata
subphylum vertebrata

the subphylum of vertebrate has 7 classes which are

1.Class Agnatha
2.Class Chondrichthyes
3.Class Osteichthyes
4.Class Amphibia
5.Class Reptilia
6.Class Aves
7.Class Mammalia

phylum of urochordata characteristic and animals

tunicates or sea squirts
sessile or planktonic marine organism, whose larvae losses general
chordate forms
stucture of adult is highly modified?Includes sieve-like basket
perforated w/pharyngeal gill slits, surrounded by cellulose sac called
a tunic

?Lancelets
Small, fishlike marine chordates that burrow in sand or mud belong
to which subphylum and phylum?

subphylum cephalochordate and phylum of chordata