AP Bio Chapter 7 Flashcards

cellular respiration

C6H12O6 + 6O2
=6CO2 + 6H2O + energy, catabolic, exergonic-
releases energy that can be used to do work (such as build ATP from
ADP and Pi)

oxidization

losing electrons
sugar and carbon dioxide

reduced

gaining electrons
oxygen and water

NAD+

a coenzyme electron carrier

NADH

NAD+ + 2e- + H+
reduced

FAD

another coenzyme election carrier

FADH2

FAD + 2e- + 2H+
reduced

glycolysis

breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate
occurs in the cytoplasm, has 2 major phases
energy investment phase- 2 ATP used/invested
Energy payoff phase- 4 ATP produced
Net gain of 2 ATP

citric acid cycle

completes the breakdown of glucose
6CO2 produced for each glucose (oxidation)
In the presence of oxygen, the pyruvate enters the mitochondria

oxidative phosphorylation

accounts for most of the ATP synthesis
6O2 are reduce to 6H2O (as NADH is oxidized
back to NAD+)
generates most of the ATP because it is powered by redox reactions
(accounts for almost 90% of ATP produced by cellular respiration)

substrate level phosphorylation

generates a small amount of ATP, includes glycolysis and citric acid cycle

glycolysis

oxidizing glucose into to molecules of pyruvate

citric acid cycle

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