Biology Exam Chapters 9,13, & 14 Flashcards

____ speciation apparently led to the 2 different species of wheat
that emerged in the same field due to polyploidy in one species,
leading to a different number of chromosomes


One species lives with three holes; another species lives only in streams?


Males of one species sing only when its predators are absent, males
of another species sing only when its predators are present as a warning


Male of one species are too small to perform amplexus with females of
all other species


One species mates at the season when daylight is increasing from 13
hours to 13 hours, 15 minutes; another species mates at the season
when daylight is increasing form 14 hours to 14 hours, 15 minutes.


Which of the following is a cause of microevolution

Genetic Drift, Gene flow, natural selection

The Darwinian fitness of an individual is measured most directly by

The number of its offspring that survive to reproduce

The evolution of new species where a new species accumulates most its
unique features as it comes into existence and its followed by long
periods of stasis where it undergoes little or no change is best
explained as

Punctuated Equilibrium

The ______ provides strong supporting evidence for evolution, mainly
preserved in sedimentary rock, giving a time line of when various
organisms lived on earth and how they have

Fossil Record

The total collection of genes within a population at any one time is
called a

Gene pool

Black fur in mice (B) is dominant to brown (b). Short tails (T) are
dominant to long tails (t). What fraction of offspring between a cross
of parents with BbTt x BbTt with have brown fur long tails?


A group of like organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile
offspring is a


Which of the following pieces of evidence most strongly supports the
common origin of all life on earth?

All organisms use essentially the same genetic code (DNA)

The Galapagos Finches are a classic example of _____ as there likely
branched into numerous species with various characteristics from a
common ancestor on the mainland, as they migrated from island to another

Adaptive Radiation

The branch of biology that names and classifies organisms is called


The movement of various ethnic groups and individuals of different
cultures and ancestry into this country contributed to an increase in
genetic diversity, giving us a new face of American this is called?

Gene flow

Any radom change in the DNA. This can lead to new alleles in a gene
pool and thus genetic variation in the species?


______ is the irrevocable loss of a species, such as the Tasmanian Tiger?


When humans purposely breed individuals to produce offspring with
desirable traits, such as breeding cows that produce more mold this is?

Artificial selection

Sugas gliders of Australia and Northern flying squirrels of North
America live on different continents but have evolved similar
adaptations. Which discipline is most likely to provide an
evolutionary explanation for how this difference in tails came about?


In Darwins thinking, the more closely related two different organisms
are the ?

More recently they shared a common ancestor

Which statement about natural selection is most correct?

Well adapted individuals leave more offspring, and thus contribute
more to the next generation's gene pool, than do poorly adapted individuals

During drought years on the Galapagos, small easily eaten seeds
become rare, leaving mostly large, hard-cased seed that only birds
with large beaks can eat. If drought persists for several years, that
should one expect to result from natural selection?

More small beaked birds dying than larger beaked birds. The offspring
produced is subsequent generations have a higher percentage of birds
with larger beaks

Inherited traits increase an organisms ability to survive and
reproduce in a particular environment


The forelimbs of mammals share similar bones even though these limbs
may perform differently, with the likelihood of a shared common
ancestor, these are called

Homologous Structures

Over evolutionary, many cave dwelling organisms have lost their eyes.
Tapeworms have lost their digestive systems. Whales have lost their
hind limps. How can natural selection account for these losses.

Under particular circumstances that persisted for long periods, each
of these structures presented greater costs than benefits, making them vestigial

A certain species of land snail exits as either a cream color or a
solid brown color. Intermediate individuals are relatively rare. Which
of the following terms best describes this?

Disruptive selection

Fossils evidence indicates the horses have gradually increased in
size over geologic time. Which of the following terms best describes this?


Most swiss starlings produce 4 to 5 eggs in each clutch. Those
producing fewer than 4 or more than 5 have lower survival rate of the
offspring. Which of the following terms best describes this?

Stabilizing Selection

If a population of a meadowlark nests are destroyed during massive
storms, their population is greatly reduced and show changes in allele
frequency over time form the original population, this is and example of

Genetic Drift and bottleneck effect

Theoretically, the population of mules by interbreeding female horses
and male donkeys is an example of what mechanism for keeping these
species separate

The post zygotic barrier called hybrid sterility

A woman marries a man who is colorblind. she has normal vision but
her father is colorblind. This couple has a son, what are the chances
that he will be colorblind?


What pattern of inheritance is Red-Green colorblindness

Sex-linked inheritance

If a mother with blood type A gives birth to a child with blood type
B, the father must have which of the following blood types

Either AB or B

Albinism is a genetic disorder caused by a recessive autosomal
allele. A man and women, both with normal skin pigment have an albino
child together

Homozygous Recessive (aa)

the couple decides to have another child, what is the probability
that this child will be albino too?


Using a ______ cross Mendel determined that each pari of alleles
(genes) are inherited independently of other pairs during gamete
production, this is the law of _____

Dihybrid and Independent Assortment

If a tall pea plant is crossed with a short pea plant all of the
offspring express the tall phenotype. The F1 generation self
pollinate, what is the predicted phenotypic ratio of the F2 offspring?

3 tall one short

of all the offspring of a cross between a red-flowered plant and a
white flowered plant have pink flowers. This means that the pattern of
inheritance for these alleles must be?

Incomplete dominance

skin pigment in humans is an example of which pattern of inheritance?


People who have red hair usually have freckles. this can be best
explained by?

Linked genes

In a cross AaBbCc x AaBbCc, what is the probability of the producing
the genotype AABBCC?


Which describes the ability of a single gene to have multiple
phenotypic effects on an individual, like the sickle cell anemia?


Having AB blood type exhibits what pattern of inheritance?

Multiple (blood types)

Founders effect

when a new individuals colonize a new or isolated habitat

Genetic Drift

The change on a gene pool of a population due to chance

Gene flow

movement of alleles in and out of a population

Natural selection

can only occur if genetic variation exits within a population