Biology Exam Chapters 4, 5, & 10 Flashcards

A biologists wants to study the internal structures and compartments
inside a pollen grain that needs to be magnified 8,000 times to be
visible. Which would be the best tool for the study?

Transmission Electron Microscope

All of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell expect

A nucleus

One reason cells are small is that as cell sizes increases, the
surface area to volume ratio of the cell?


Which organelle is primarily involved in the synthesis of oils,
phospholipids, and steroids; and helps to breakdown and remove toxins
from the cell?

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

The following are found in plants cells, but not in animal cells?

Chloroplasts and Cell walls

An immune system cell produces thousands of antibodies (proteins) per
second for release into the body. What type of intracellular structure
would you expect to be abundant within the cell

Rough ER

Tay-Sachs disease in a human genetic abnormality that results in
cells accumulating and becoming clogged with very large and complex
lipids, which should normally be digested and broken down. Which
cellular organelle is not functioning properly?


Lysosomes are?

organelles that contain digestive enzymes

Which of the following organelles stores, modifies, and packages
proteins and lipids and synthesizes carbohydrates

Golgi Apparatus

Muscles cells constantly need a supply of energy to move and
contract, which organelle would likely be abundant in the muscle cells
to release energy to power such movements


Which of the following contains its own DNA and ribosomes, and may
have evolved from once free-living prokaryotes through endosymbiosis

Chloroplasts and Mitochondria

Which structure function pair is mismatched?

Ribosomes and Cellular respiration

The current _____ model describes phospholipids in bilayer that can
moves laterally along the plane of the membrane because of the
flexibility of the structure and are embedded with a variety of components

Fluid Mosaic

Which of the following cell junctions act as seams between cells to
seal tissues and prevent fluids from leaking across cell layers

Tight Junctions

What kinds of molecules pass through a cell membrane most easily

Small and hydrophobic

An animal cell's ability to distinguish one type of neighboring cell
from another or cell to cell recognition is a role of


Isotonic are?

Balanced, constant random movements of particles

Hypotonic are?

Lower concentration (water moves into a cell)

Hypertonic are?

Higher concentration (water particles move out)

When plants cells, such as celery stalk, are submerged in a
hypertonic salt water solution, what is likely to occur?

Plasmolysis will shrink the interior cell membrane away from the cell wall

The NA+/K+ pump is an example of____, because it_____.

Active transport, require cellular energy

________ across a biological membrane requires transport proteins to
move substance_____ its concentration gradient?

Facilitated diffusion, down

An amoeba extends it pseudopodia to engulf a bacterium for food
through what process?



fluids, "cellular drinking


Vesicles shipped form Golgi bodies moved to the plasma membrane


Membrane engulfs a particle and pinched off to form a vesicle around it

The difference between pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis
is that?

Pinocytosis is NONSELECTIVE in the dissolved molecules it brings into
the cell, whereas receptor-mediated endocytosis is more specific

Which of the following is a statement of the first law of
thermodynamics ?

Energy cannot be created or destroyed

The organic enzyme helpers that are usually vitamins or vitamin
derivatives that help enzymes to function are known as?



Inorganic protein helpers

Non-Competitive enzyme inhibitors can change enzyme function by?

Binding to an allosteric site and changing the shape of the active site

When ATP is broken down and the third phosphate is removed?

Free energy is released to power cellular functions

If DNA molecule is found to be composed of 10% Thymine, what
percentage of Guanine would be expected?


Beadle and Tatum

One gene, one protein hypothesis

Alfred Hersey and Martha Chase

Bacteriophages to show DNA Genetic material

Watson and Crick

Won the noble prize for DNA double helix

Rosalind Franklin

Made measurements of DNA structure using X-ray Crystallography

Frederick Griffith

Studied pneumonia bacteria and observes transformation

Which enzyme adds free nucleotides to the growing DNA strand during
replication and proofread it?


What are the non-coding segments of a stretch of eukaryotic DNA that
removed from the mRNA before it leaves the nucleus?



Coding segments are spliced together and exit the nucleus and are
expressed as amino acids

Anti condon

A sequence of three nucleotides forming a unit of genetic code in a
transfer RNA molecule

Why are viruses referred to as non-living parasites

They can't reproduce outside the host cell and viruses are not cells

Messenger RNA

Carries coded instructions from DNA for synthesizing proteins

Transfer TRNA

Carries specific amino acids to the ribosomes that form proteins


Uptake of DNA from he surrounding environment


Gene transfer via sex pili


Gene transfer via a vector phage virus

What is the triplet sequence of nucleotides in mRNA called?


What is the reproductive cycle of a virus that destroys that host
cell and releases many viruses

Lytic (bad)

Lysogenic Cell

Viral DNA is duplicated (good)

What cell junctions form channels between plant cells?


Cytosine and Thymine are _____ while Adenine and Guanine are purines?


Who first identified "cells" using simple microscope to
study cork?

Robert Hooke

Rough ER

Studded with ribosomes synthesized proteins

Smooth ER

Synthesized lipids, detoxify cell.


Membranous sacs for storage and transport

Golgi Apparatus

Modifies protein and lipids, synthesized carbohydrates and packages
molecules for transport


Cellular digestion



Tight Junctions

Seal cells together, prevent leaking

Anchoring Junctions

Holds cells together

Gap Junctions

Small communications channels between animal cells