A biologists wants to study the internal structures and compartments
inside a pollen grain that needs to be magnified 8,000 times to be
visible. Which would be the best tool for the study?
Transmission Electron Microscope
All of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell expect
One reason cells are small is that as cell sizes increases, the
surface area to volume ratio of the cell?
Which organelle is primarily involved in the synthesis of oils,
phospholipids, and steroids; and helps to breakdown and remove toxins
from the cell?
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
The following are found in plants cells, but not in animal cells?
Chloroplasts and Cell walls
An immune system cell produces thousands of antibodies (proteins) per
second for release into the body. What type of intracellular structure
would you expect to be abundant within the cell
Tay-Sachs disease in a human genetic abnormality that results in
cells accumulating and becoming clogged with very large and complex
lipids, which should normally be digested and broken down. Which
cellular organelle is not functioning properly?
organelles that contain digestive enzymes
Which of the following organelles stores, modifies, and packages
proteins and lipids and synthesizes carbohydrates
Muscles cells constantly need a supply of energy to move and
contract, which organelle would likely be abundant in the muscle cells
to release energy to power such movements
Which of the following contains its own DNA and ribosomes, and may
have evolved from once free-living prokaryotes through endosymbiosis
Chloroplasts and Mitochondria
Which structure function pair is mismatched?
Ribosomes and Cellular respiration
The current _____ model describes phospholipids in bilayer that can
moves laterally along the plane of the membrane because of the
flexibility of the structure and are embedded with a variety of components
Which of the following cell junctions act as seams between cells to
seal tissues and prevent fluids from leaking across cell layers
What kinds of molecules pass through a cell membrane most easily
Small and hydrophobic
An animal cell's ability to distinguish one type of neighboring cell
from another or cell to cell recognition is a role of
Balanced, constant random movements of particles
Lower concentration (water moves into a cell)
Higher concentration (water particles move out)
When plants cells, such as celery stalk, are submerged in a
hypertonic salt water solution, what is likely to occur?
Plasmolysis will shrink the interior cell membrane away from the cell wall
The NA+/K+ pump is an example of____, because it_____.
Active transport, require cellular energy
________ across a biological membrane requires transport proteins to
move substance_____ its concentration gradient?
Facilitated diffusion, down
An amoeba extends it pseudopodia to engulf a bacterium for food
through what process?
fluids, "cellular drinking
Vesicles shipped form Golgi bodies moved to the plasma membrane
Membrane engulfs a particle and pinched off to form a vesicle around it
The difference between pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis
Pinocytosis is NONSELECTIVE in the dissolved molecules it brings into
the cell, whereas receptor-mediated endocytosis is more specific
Which of the following is a statement of the first law of
Energy cannot be created or destroyed
The organic enzyme helpers that are usually vitamins or vitamin
derivatives that help enzymes to function are known as?
Inorganic protein helpers
Non-Competitive enzyme inhibitors can change enzyme function by?
Binding to an allosteric site and changing the shape of the active site
When ATP is broken down and the third phosphate is removed?
Free energy is released to power cellular functions
If DNA molecule is found to be composed of 10% Thymine, what
percentage of Guanine would be expected?
Beadle and Tatum
One gene, one protein hypothesis
Alfred Hersey and Martha Chase
Bacteriophages to show DNA Genetic material
Watson and Crick
Won the noble prize for DNA double helix
Made measurements of DNA structure using X-ray Crystallography
Studied pneumonia bacteria and observes transformation
Which enzyme adds free nucleotides to the growing DNA strand during
replication and proofread it?
What are the non-coding segments of a stretch of eukaryotic DNA that
removed from the mRNA before it leaves the nucleus?
Coding segments are spliced together and exit the nucleus and are
expressed as amino acids
A sequence of three nucleotides forming a unit of genetic code in a
transfer RNA molecule
Why are viruses referred to as non-living parasites
They can't reproduce outside the host cell and viruses are not cells
Carries coded instructions from DNA for synthesizing proteins
Carries specific amino acids to the ribosomes that form proteins
Uptake of DNA from he surrounding environment
Gene transfer via sex pili
Gene transfer via a vector phage virus
What is the triplet sequence of nucleotides in mRNA called?
What is the reproductive cycle of a virus that destroys that host
cell and releases many viruses
Viral DNA is duplicated (good)
What cell junctions form channels between plant cells?
Cytosine and Thymine are _____ while Adenine and Guanine are purines?
Who first identified "cells" using simple microscope to
Studded with ribosomes synthesized proteins
Synthesized lipids, detoxify cell.
Membranous sacs for storage and transport
Modifies protein and lipids, synthesized carbohydrates and packages
molecules for transport
Seal cells together, prevent leaking
Holds cells together
Small communications channels between animal cells