Biology Final 2016 Flashcards

A thermosensory neuron in the skin converts heat energy to nerve
impulses via a conversion called _____.

sensory transduction

Sensory adaptation is apparent when _____.

a person is no longer aware of a heavy necklace that was put on
earlier in the day

Sensory transduction in the auditory system is much like transduction
of _____.

mechanosensory stimuli

The energy for sensory transduction by the lateral line system in
fish comes from _____.

water movements

The visual information used by honeybees includes these elements that
are not apparent to humans.

the ability to distinguish ultraviolet radiation and 300 flashes of
light per second

When light first enters the human eye, the first structure that it
must pass through is the _____.


Rods and cones are similar in that they both _____.

release glutamate as the primary neurotransmitter

The sense described as umami is one of _____.

savory and delicious sensation on the tongue

Myosin heads have binding sites for _____.

ATP and actin

Among these choices, the most energy-efficient form of animal
movement, per kg of body mass, is _____.

swimming by large fish

The perceived pitch of a sound depends on

which region of the basilar membrane was set in motion.

The cochlea is an organ of auditory transduction that contains

fluid and cells that can undergo mechanosensory transduction.

The lateral line system in fish transduces sensory information in a
manner that, among these choices, is most similar to

human vestibular sense.

Hair cells are found in structures represented by numbers

5 and 7

Rods exposed to light will

hyperpolarize due to the closing of sodium channels.

An injury to the occipital lobe will likely impair function of the

primary visual cortex.

The olfactory bulb is located

in the brain.

The calcium ions released into the cytosol during excitation of
skeletal muscle bind to


A skeletal muscle with abnormally low levels of calcium ions would be
impaired in

initiating contraction.

The fundamental excitable cell in the nervous system is the _____.


The central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the human
brain contain a filtrate of the blood, called _____.

cerebrospinal fluid

The knee-jerk reflex has sensory neurons arising in the _____,
interneurons in the _____, and efferent neurons that stimulate
contraction in the _____.

quadriceps muscle ... spinal cord ... quadriceps muscle

As vertebrates evolved, the increasingly complex structure of the
brain conferred increasingly complex function, especially apparent in
the _____.

cerebral cortex, which is greatly expanded in humans, other primates,
and cetaceans

Dolphins can be awake and asleep at the same time because _____.

one side of the brain can sleep while the other side maintains
swimming and breathing behaviors

Emotion, motivation, olfaction, behavior, and memory, in humans, are
mediated by the _____.

limbic system

Motor cortex and somatosensory cortex are _____.

organized in similar manner adjacent to each other, and are
anatomically similar from one person to the next

In adult humans, short-term memory relies on connections in the _____
whereas long-term memories appear to be based in the _____.

hippocampus ... cerebral cortex

Addiction onset by cocaine and amphetamines is characterized by
increased _____.

persistence of dopamine in the brain's synapses

Parkinsonism is characterized by the loss of _____.

dopaminergic neurons

Myelinated neurons are especially abundant in the

white matter in the brain and the white matter in the spinal cord.

Although an exact count is not available, it is likely that the human
brain has as many as

100 billion neurons.

Calculation, contemplation, and cognition are human activities
associated with increased activity in the


In the figure, which letter points to the amygdala?


Of these choices, neuronal communication between the brain and the
muscles of the leg is best conceptualized as _____.

electrical and chemical signaling

The "information receiving" section of a neuron is its _____.


Choose the set that includes the most charged compounds that are more
abundant inside neurons, in the cytosol, than outside the neurons, in
the extracellular fluid.

potassium ions and proteins

Ions move in the direction opposite to that favored by the chemical
concentration gradient when _____.

they are pumped by proteins that require ATP hydrolysis and when the
electrical charge gradient repulses or attracts them

In a neuron, during the depolarization phase that may trigger an
action potential _____.

some voltage-gated sodium channels are open

The simultaneous arrival of graded depolarization and a graded
hyperpolarization of equal but opposite magnitude at a particular
location on the dendritic membrane is likely to _____.

cancel each other out, making it appear as if there was no change in
membrane potential

Select the choice that describes neurons with the fastest conduction
velocity for action potentials.

thick, myelinated neurons

A nerve poison that blocks acetylcholine receptors on dendrites would _____.

reduce the binding of acetylcholine to its receptors on the
postsynpatic membrane

At the neuromuscular junction, the arrival of acetylcholine on the
muscle most immediately causes _____.

a graded depolarization

Acetylcholine receptors on skeletal muscles are described as being
"ionotropic" receptors because _____.

binding of acetylcholine to the receptor protein converts the protein
to an open ion channel

Most of the neurons in the human brain are


An amino acid that operates at inhibitory synapses in the brain is


The minimum graded depolarization needed to operate the voltage-gated
sodium channels is indicated by the label


When several EPSPs arrive at the axon hillock from different
dendritic locations, depolarizing the postsynaptic cell to threshold
for an action potential, this is an example of

spatial summation.

Hormones are _____.

chemical signals between cells, transported in blood or hemolymph

The hormone epinephrine causes opposite effects in two populations of
target cells because _____.

each set of target cells has different receptor-transduction mechanisms

Oxytocin secretion and milk release from the mammary glands of
lactating female mammals are initiated by _____.

the physical sensation of the baby sucking at the nipple

In their mechanism of action, a difference between lipid-soluble and
water-soluble hormones is that _____.

lipid-soluble hormones bind to an intracellular receptor and this
hormone-receptor complex binds to DNA

The counter-regulatory functions of the pancreas refer to the fact
that it _____.

releases one hormone that reduces glucose levels in the blood and
another that increases them

This disorder typically arises prior to puberty and is generally
treated by injections of the hormone missing from the affected
individual's bloodstream.

Type I diabetes mellitus

The anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary differ in that _____.

many anterior pituitary hormones regulate other endocrine glands
whereas posterior pituitary hormones regulate nonendocrine tissues

How does the adrenal gland respond to stress?

The adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine in
response to short-term stress.

Jet lag occurs when a person moves rapidly from one time zone to
another, causing conflict between the body's biological rhythm and the
new cycle of light and dark. Some scientists suspect that jet lag may
result from disruption of the daily cycle of secretion of the hormone
known as _____.


Which category of signal exerts its effects on target cells by
binding to membrane-bound receptor proteins?


Different body cells can respond differently to the same peptide
hormones because

a target cell's response is determined by the components of its
signal transduction pathways.

The endocrine glands include the

parathyroid glands.

Testosterone is an example of

an androgen.

A cell with membrane-bound proteins that selectively bind a specific
hormone is called that hormone's

target cell.

Prostaglandins are local regulators whose chemical structure is derived

fatty acids.