Bio 181L final Flashcards

similarities of mitosis and meiosis

they are both cell divisons that occur in humans and other organisms.
they both have similar steps.

differences between mitosis and meiosis

meiosis has two divisions and includes synapsis and cross over
meiosis produces 4 cells and mitosis produces 2
meiosis produces haploid cells and mitosis produces diploid cells

steps of mitosis

interphase, prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

steps of meiosis

prophase 1, metaphase 1, anaphase 1, telophase 1, cytocynesis,
prophase 2, metaphase 2, anaphase 2, telophase 2, cytocynesis

in which cells does meiosis occur

sex cells

in which cells does mitosis occur

somatic cells

when are cells haploid

sex cells

when are cells diploid

somatic cells

what is prophase

chromosomes become visible as paired chromatids and the nuclear
envelope disappears.

what is metaphase

the chromosomes become attached to the spindle fibers.

what is anaphase

the chromosomes move away from one another to opposite poles of the spindle.

what is telophase

chromosomes decondense, nuclear envelope forms

what is complete dominance

the dominant allele completely masks the recessive allele

what is incomplete dominance

one allele does not completely dominate another allele, and therefore
results in a new phenotype.

what is codominance

both alleles are equally expressed

what are the basic steps in DNA replication

initiation, elongation, termination

what are the three steps of PCR

denaturization, annealing, extension

what happens during PCR

multiple copies of DNA are produced

at which temperature is PCR performed

denaturation 95-98 degrees Celsius annealing 55-65
degrees Celsius extension 70-74 degrees Celsius

what is Taq polymerase

thermo stable DNA polymerase enzyme that copies
DNA comes from bacterium found in hot springs

why is Taq polymerase important

can survive hot temperatures of PCR

What is in the Master Mix we used in PCR

taq DNA polymerase, magnesium, buffer solution, dNTPs

What are ALL the necessary reagents for PCR

template DNA, nucleotides, primers, taq polymerase, magnesium buffer

what are primers

short DNA segments that are complimentary to the start of the genes
being copied

how do primers bind

they bind by being complimentary to the nucleotide sequences of DNA

How are the fragments separated in gel electrophoresis

they are separated by weight and size

Why do you need a molecular weight marker / DNA ladder in gel electrophoresis

gives you something to compare the DNA to

What is the purpose of the loading dye in gel electophoresis

increases density and gives a visual for band movement

What is the purpose of the 1X TAE electrophoresis buffer that fills
the chamber

conducts electrical current
regulates potential hydrogen in the gel

what are the reactions involved in fertilization

acrosomal reaction and cortical reaction

what are the reactions involved in cleavage


what are the reactions involved in gastrulation


what are the reactions involved in organogenesis


what is polyspermy

fertilization of an egg by multiple sperm

what is acrosomal reaction

hydrolytic enzymes released form sperm head digest the jelly coat of
a zona pellucida of a human egg

what is cortical reaction

cortical granules fuse with plasma membrane, clip off sperm binding
receptors and create fertilization envelope

what is fertilization

formation of the diploid zygote from a haploid sperm and egg

what is cleavage

rapid cell division from zygote to blastula

what is gastrulation

reorganization of the hollow blastula into a two or three layered
embryo called gastrula

what is archenteron

the rudimentarty alimentary cavity of an embryo at the gasturla
stage, also known as the digestive tube

what is blastocoel

fluid filled cavity of a blastula

what is cleavage furrow

indentation of the cell surface that begins the process of cleavage
which is the separation of daughter cells

what is organogenesis

regions of the three embryonic germ layer develop into rudiment of organs

what is neurulation

first steps in the formation of the brain and spinal cord vertebrates

what is neural plate

ectoderm above the notochord

what is neural tube

nural plate rolled inward, becomes brain and spinal cord

what is notochord

cells from the dorsal mesoderm come together

what is vegetal pole

the portion of an ovum opposite the animal pole containing most of
the yolk and little cytoplasm

what is animal pole

the portion of the ovum that contain the nucleus and less yolk
opposite the vegetal pole

what is somites

blocks of tissue that will give rise to vertebrae

what are the major adult tissues derived from the three embryonic
germ layers for vertebrates

ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm