bio psych 4 Flashcards

Describe a Type A, Type B, or Type D individual

Type A personalities have hectic and demanding lives.

Type B personalities have more relaxed lives.
Type D personalities have a constellation of traits centered on a
tendency toward negative feelings, coupled with strong social inhibition.
Type D personality is even more closely associated with poor
outcomes of heart disease than is the traditional type A personality.

stress immunization

the idea that mild stress early in life makes it easier to handle
stress later in life.

There is a negative correlation between serotonin and aggression:

The most aggressive monkeys in a free ranging colony had the
lowest levels of serotonin. Mice lacking a serotonin
receptor are hyper-aggressive.

whats correlation between serotonin, androgen and aggression

Androgens seem to increase aggression, but the correlation in
humans is less clear.
Two confounding variables:
Experience and dominance can affect testosterone levels; winners
show higher levels of testosterone than losers.

review the role of the amygdala in the fear emotion

Different regions of the amygdala react to a stimulus and send a
message to the central nucleus of the amygdala.
The central nucleus transmits information to different brainstem
regions to mediate different components of a fear response.

fear conditioning

is a type of classical conditioning where a previously neutral
stimulus is repeatedly paired with shock or some
other unpleasant experience, causing the subject to act fearful in
response to the stimulus.

Review the differences between the two hemisphere�s processing
of emotions

The right hemisphere discerns other people�s emotions. The left side
of the face, controlled by the right hemisphere, is more expressive
than the right. The two cerebral hemispheres differ in emotional tone.
Damage to the left hemisphere produces depressive symptoms. Patients
with damage to the right hemisphere are very cheerful.

Review individual response stereotypy and review �high
reactive� individuals

Individual response stereotypy is the tendency of
individuals to have the same response patterns throughout their lives.

Infants who are high reactives to
stimuli�with exceptionally strong reactions�may later have increased
phobias or fear responses.

Review sympathetic/parasympathetic functions

The sympathetic nervous system (the �fight or
flight� system that generally activates the body for action) or
the parasympathetic nervous system (which generally
prepares the body to relax and recuperate).

Review the significance of culture in display of emotions

There is cross-cultural similarity in expression
production, but there are culture-specific differences in
display. **** go back

How does a polygraph machine works, and how reliable is it?

(lie detector) measures bodily responses but is not reliable.
multiple physiological measures are recorded. The test is based on
the assumption that lying produces emotional and physiological responses

How does a polygraph machine works, and how reliable is it?

(lie detector) measures bodily responses but is not reliable.
multiple physiological measures are recorded. The test is based on
the assumption that lying produces emotional and physiological responses

In sleep apnea

breathing may stop or slow down; blood oxygen drops rapidly.Sleep
apnea rises either from progressive relaxation of muscles of the
chest, diaphragm, and throat cavity (obstructive apnea) or
from changes in the pacemaker respiratory neurons of the brainstem
(central apnea).Muscles in the chest and diaphragm may relax
too much, or pacemaker respiratory neurons in th brainstem may not
signal properly.


Night terrors and sleep enuresis (bed-wetting) are
associated with SWS


Have frequent sleep attacks and excessive daytime sleepiness.Do not
go through SWS before REM sleep.
May show cataplexy�a sudden loss of muscle tone,
leading to collapse

What are the 4 functions of sleep

Energy conservation
Niche adaptation
Body restoration
Memory consolidation

Study human sleep across life span

Infant sleep is characterized by:
Shorter sleep cycles
More REM sleep�50%, which may provide essential stimulation to the
developing nervous system
As people age, total time asleep declines, and the number of
awakenings increases.
The most dramatic decline is the loss of time spent in stage 3:
At age 60, only half as much time is spent in stage 3 as at age 20;
by age 90, stage 3 has disappeared.

Study the human sleep cycle

Stage 1 sleep shows events of irregular frequency and
smaller amplitude, as well as sharp waves called vertex spikes.

Stage 2 sleep:
Defined by waves of 12 to 14 Hz that occur in
bursts, called sleep spindles

K-complexes appear�sharp negative EEG potentials

Stage 3 sleep:Continued sleep spindles as in stage
2.Defined by the appearance of large-amplitude, very slow waves called
delta waves.Delta waves occur about once per second.

REM sleep follows.
Active EEG with small-amplitude, high-frequency waves, like an awake
personMuscles are relaxed; muscles are flaccid and unresponsive.

Review REM Sleep

REM sleep is sometimes called paradoxical sleep due to the
mismatch between brain activity that resembles an awake person and the
lack of muscle activity.20% IS REM SLEEP !!!

Review infradian, ultradian and circadian

rhythms occur less than once per day.
Some of these rhythms are driven by exogenous factors, such as food
availability and temperature.
An endogenous circannual clock, separate from the
SCN, runs at approximately 365 days.
Some biological rhythms are shorter than a day, such as bouts of
activity, feeding, and hormone release.
These ultradian rhythms occur more than once per day.
Period length can be from minutes to hours.

Study the SCN and its primary functions.

The biological clock is in the suprachiasmatic nucleus
(SCN)�located above the optic chiasm in the hypothalamus.
Circadian rhythms are disrupted in animals with SCN lesions.
Isolated SCN neurons can maintain electrical activity synchronized
to the previous light cycle.


develops with continual focusing on close objects, requiring that the
lens be unrelaxed. Adequate light, larger type, and reading without
glasses can help prevent myopia.


reduced visual acuity, not caused by optical or retinal damage,
usually due to misalignment of the eyes.If the weak eye is used
regularly with the good eye covered, vision can be preserved in both eyes.

What are the three variables of color?

Brightness�varies from dark to light

Hue�varies throughout all colors

Saturation�varies from full colors to gray

Study the roles of V1 and V5

V1 (primary visual cortex) perceives objects and events and is
necessary in forming mental images.
Other cortical areas�V2, V4, and the inferior temporal lobe�are
involved in perception of form.
V5, also called the medial temporal area (MT), is
specialized for motion perception.

What are the functions of the dorsal and ventral streams

A ventral processing stream, for identifying objects (what)
A dorsal stream for assessing the location of objects (where)

Study the major brain regions for processing vision (LGN,
striate cortex, occipital lobe)

Most axons synapse on cells in the
lateral geniculate nucleus

(LGN) of the thalamus.
Axons of postsynaptic cells in the LGN form the optic
radiations and terminate in the primary visual
cortex (V1) or
cortex of the
lobe�the region where most visual information first arrives.

Study optic chiasm, optic tract, and ganglion cell axons

Ganglion cell
axons form the optic nerve and cross at the
chiasm.After passing the optic chiasm, the axons are
called the
optic tract

The scotopic system (rods)

works in dim light.

The photopic system (cones)

requires more light and allows for color vision.