Bio 1010c final 2 Flashcards

Chapter 1


Diagram the hierarchy of structural levels in biological organization
from the simplest to the most complex level.

Atomsmolecules organelle tissues organ systemlifeform

What are the characteristics of a prokaryote

no nucleus, have DNA, non-membrane bound organelles, simple

What are the characteristics of a eukaryote

Nucleus, complex

What is positive feedback

Blood clotting

What is negative feedback.

Noncompetitive, attaches to the aerosteric site


The tendency of the body to seek and maintain a condition of balance
or equilibrium within its internal environment, even when faced with
external changes

What are the 3 domains of life

Bacteria, eukarya, and archea

What is quantitative data

data expressing a certain quantity, amount or range

What is qualitative data.

information about qualities; information that can't actually be measured

Describe what is meant by a controlled experiment.

A controlled experiment has a placebo

Chapter 2


What is an element?

A part or aspect of something abstract, especially one that is
essential or characteristic.

What is a compound?

A thing that is composed of two or more separate elements; a mixture.

What is a neutron

a subatomic particle of about the same mass as a proton but without
an electric charge, present in all atomic nuclei except those of
ordinary hydrogen.

What is a proton

A stable subatomic particle occurring in all atomic nuclei, with a
positive electric charge equal in magnitude to that of an electron,
but of opposite sign.

What is atomic number

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

What is mass number

The total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus.

Explain how two isotopes of an element are similar. Explain how they
are different

All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons, but
some atoms have more neutrons that other atoms of the same element
therefor have a greater mass or different atomic forms

What is a non-polar covalent bond

Equal sharing of electrons

What is a polar covalent bond

Unequal sharing electrons

What is an ionic bond

complete transfer of electrons

What is a hydrogen bond?

A weak bond between two molecules resulting from an electrostatic
attraction between a proton in one molecule and an electronegative
atom in the other

What is a Van der Waals interaction?

The residual attractive or repulsive forces between molecules or
atomic groups that do not arise from a covalent bond, or electrostatic
interaction of ions or of ionic groups

What is energy?

The ability to do work

What is potential energy

Stored energy which can be used to do work

Chapter 3


What is kinetic energy

Engird due to the motion an object

Why are water molecules polar?

Because of it's shape, one side is positively charged and the other
side is negatively charged

Why are water molecules capable of hydrogen bonding with four
neighboring water molecules

The oxygen atom is charged as 2- .And the two hydrogen atoms are
charged as 1+ each.Therefore the oxygen atom can attract two hydrogen
atoms of other two water molecules and the two hydrogen atoms can
attrat two oxygen atoms of another two water molecules

What are 4 characteristics of water resulting from hydrogen bonding

Cohesive behavior, ability to moderate temperature, expansion up
freezing, and versatility as a solvent

What is cohesion

The attraction of molecules for other molecules of the same kind

What is adhesion

The attraction of molecules of one kind for molecules of a different kind

What is a solute

The substance which dissolved in the solvent

What is a solvent

A liquid in which substances are dissolved in

What is a solution

A mixture in which one substance is dissolved in another

What is a hydrophobic substance

The substance hates water

What is a hydrophilic substance

The substance loves water

What is an acid

A fundamental category of many compounds whose water-based solutions
have a sourtaste, turn blue litmus paper red and can combine with
metals to form salts

What is a base

Substances that accept protons from acids. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) is
a gas. Its two atoms are held together by a shared pair of electrons.

What is pH

a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution

How acids and bases may directly or indirectly alter the hydrogen ion
concentration of a solution.

When an acid interacts with a solution, it can donate protons. When
an alkaline interacts with a solution, it can accept protons.

What is a buffer?

Solutions used as a means of keeping pH at a nearly constant value in
a wide variety of chemical applications

Chapter 4


Explain how carbon's electron configuration explains its ability to
form large,complex and diverse organic molecules

It has four valence electrons which can form many covalent bonds, of
different combinations of single and double bonds,and multiple carbon
atoms can form long chains such as gasoline.

Describe the basic structure of a hydrocarbon and explain why these
molecules are hydrophobic.

Hydrocarbons consists of only carbon and hydrogen. The nonpolar C-H
bonds in hydrocarbon chains account for their hydrophobic properties

Distinguish among the three types of isomers: structural, geometric,
and enantiomer.

Structural isomers differ in the covalent arrangement of atoms and
often in the location of double bonds. Geometric isomers have
the same sequence of covalently bonded atoms but differ in spatial
arrangement due to inflexibility of double bonds. Enantiomers
are left- and right-handed versions of each other and can differ
greatly in their biological activity.

Name the major functional groups found in organic molecules. Describe
the basic structure of each functional group.

Hydroxyl group consists of an oxygen and hydrogen (-OH). Carbonyl
group consists of a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen (CO).
Carboxyl group consists of a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen and
also attached to a hydroxyl group (-COOH).
Amino group consists of nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogens
(-NH2). Sulfhydryl group consists of a sulfur atom bonded to a
hydrogen (-SH).
Phosphate group is bonded to the carbon skeleton by an oxygen
attached to a phosphorus atom that is bonded to three other oxygen
atoms (-OPO3^2-). Methyl group is a carbon bonded to three hydrogens (-CH3).

What are the four major classes of macromolecules

Proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids

What is a monomer

A molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer

What is a polymer

A substance that has a molecular structure consisting chiefly or
entirely of a large number similar smaller units bonded together

What is a condensation reaction

Turns a vapor or a gas to a liquid

What is a hydrolysis reaction

takes away water to break a bond

What is a monosaccharide

Monosaccharide: Simplest form of carbohydrates (ex. Glucose)

What is a disaccharide

A sugar composed of 2 monosaccharide (ex. Sucrose)

What is a polysaccharide

A polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of
monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages

Describe the building-block molecules, structure, and biological
importance of fats

They are made up of 3 fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule,they
are used for energy storage,.

Describe the building-block molecules, structure, and biological
importance of phospholipids

Are lipids are mad up of 1 phosphate and 2 fatty acids, major
function to create cell membranes.

What is a saturated fatty acid

A fat in which the fatty all have single bonds

What is an unsaturated fatty acid

A fat or fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within
the fatty acid chain

What is a protein?

Any class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large
molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids

What is a polypeptide

A linear organic polymer consisting of a large number of amino
acid-residues bonded together in a chain, forming part of a protein molecule.

List the four major components of an amino acid. Explain how amino
acids may be grouped according to the physical and chemical properties
of the R group.

Hydrogen, carboxyl, amino group, unique side chain or R-group are the
4 major components of amino acids, hydrophilic, hydrophobic,
non-polar, and polar

What are the two types of the secondary protein structure?

Alpha helix, and beta sheet

What types of chemical bonds stabilize the tertiary protein
structure. These bonds are formed between the R-groups of the amino
acids OR the polypeptide backbone

Covalent bonds

Under what conditions can proteins be denatured

Heat, acidic or alkaline solutions, and organic solvents

What are the major components of nucleotides

Nitrogenous base, pentose, a single phosphate are the major
components of a nucleotides

Distinguish between ribose and deoxyribose

They are identical in chemical structure except that ribose has a
hydroxyl group on carbon 2 and deoxyribose does not have oxygen on
carbon 2

What are the 3 basic structural differences between DNA and RNA

RNA: single stranded,
DNA: double stranded helix, each strand runs opposite

What are the building blocks of carbohydrates


What are the building blocks of fats


What are the building blocks of proteins

Amino acids

What are the building blocks of the nucleic acids of DNA


What are the building blocks of the nucleic acids of RNA


What is the magnification of a microscope


What is the structure and function of the nuclear envelope, including
the role of the pore complex.

Double membrane enclosing the nucleus, perforated by pores. The
nuclear envelope encloses the nucleus separating its contents from the cytoplasm.

Explain how the nucleolus contributes to protein synthesis

It synthesizes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and combines it with protein to
assemble ribosomal sub-units to pass which then passes through the
Nuclear pores to the cytoplasm.

Describe the structure and function of a eukaryotic ribosome.

The ribosome is made up of two subunits, a large one and a small one.
its job is to translate mrna, once it enters the cytoplasm, and make
proteins using the information in the mrna

What is the function and location of free ribosomes

They are used within the cytosol and create protein which functions
within the cytosol

What is the function and location bound ribosomes

They are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum or nuclear envelope,
usually make proteins that will be included within membranes, packaged
into organelles, or exported from the cell.

What are the components of the endomembrane system, and what is the
structure and function of each

The endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and performs
metabolic functions in the cell Components of the endomembrane system
: Nuclear envelope Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Lysosomes
Vacuoles Plasma membrane These components are either continuous or
connected via transfer by vesicles.

What is the structure and functions of smooth ER

Lacks ribosomes on it's outer surface, It functions as
detoxification, carbohydrate metabolism, and storage of calcium ions.

What is the structure and function of the rough ER

Has ribosomes on it's outer surface, it makes membrane proteins and
secretory proteins

What is the function of ribosomes

it is membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that an animal cell uses
to digest (hydrolyze) macromolecules.

What are the 3 types of vacuoles and what are there functions

Food vacuoles: a membranous sac formed by phagocytosis of
microorganisms or particles to be used as food by the cell
Contractile vacuoles: found in many freshwater protists, it pumps
excess water out of the cell, thereby maintaining a suitable
concentration of ions & molecules inside the cell
Central vacuole: developed by the coalescence of smaller vacuoles.

What are the energy conversions carried out by the mitochondria and chloroplasts

They convert solar energy to chemical energy by absorbing sunlight
and using it to drive the synthesis of organic comounds such as
surgars from carbon dioxide and water.

What is the structure of a mitochondrion

They are made of two membranes. The outer membrane covers the
organelle and contains it like a skin. The inner membrane folds over
many times and creates layered structures called cristae

What is the structure of a chloroplasts

Two membranes contain and protect the inner parts of the chloroplast.
They are appropriately named the outer and inner membranes. The inner
membrane surrounds the stroma and the grana (stacks of thylakoids).

What is the role of peroxisomes in eukaryotic cells

Perixomes are oxidative organelles filled with enzymes that function
in a variety of metabolic pathways, such as breaking down fatty acids
for energy or detoxifying alcohol and other poisons.

What are the functions of the cytoskeleton

The cytoskeleton is a network of protein fibers that give mechanical
support, function in cell motility (of both internal structures and
the cell as a whole), and transmit mechanical signals from the cell's
surface to its interior. It also interacts with special proteins
called motor proteins to produce cellular movements.

What are the functions of the cytoskeleton

The cytoskeleton is a network of protein fibers that give mechanical
support, function in cell motility (of both internal structures and
the cell as a whole), and transmit mechanical signals from the cell's
surface to its interior. It also interacts with special proteins
called motor proteins to produce cellular movements.

How does the ultra structure of cilia and flagella relate to their functions

A core of microtubules sheathed by the plasma membrane, a basal body
that anchors the cilium or flagellum and a motor protein called
dynein, which drives the bending movements of a cilium or flagellum.

Name the intercellular junctions found in plant cells and list the
function of each type of junction.

Plasodesmata are channels in plant cell walls through which the
plasma membranes of bordering cells connect, thus linking most cells
of a plant into a living continuum

Name the intercellular junctions found in animal cells and list the
function of each type of junction.

Tight junction where proteins hold adjacent cell membranes tightly
together, creating an impermeable seal across a layer of epithelial cells,
Demosomes (anchoring junctions) are reinforced by intermediate
filaments and rivet cells into strong sheets,
Gap junctions (communicating junctions) are cytoplasmic connections
that allow for the exchange of ions and small molecules between cells
through protein-lined pores.

Chapter 7


Chapter 8


Explain catabolic pathways in cellular metabolism

They release the energy stored in complex molecules through the
breakdown of these molecules into simpler compounds.

Explain anabolic pathways in cellular metabolism

they require energy to combine simpler molecules into more
complicated ones.

Why is an organism considered an open system

They cannot survive without continuously exchanging matter and energy
with their environment.

Explain the first law of thermodynamics

energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can be transformed from a
more useful form to a less useful form, such as from wood to smoke and ashes

Explain the second law of thermodynamics

Energy moves towards entropy -- the potential energy of a system will
be less than the initial energy, if there are no inputs of energy

What is a exergonic reaction

When energy is released

What is an endergonic reaction

When energy is absorbed

What are the 3 main kinds of cellular work

Chemical work
Mechanical work
transport work

What is the structure of ATP

A molecule of adenosine bound to three phosphate groups

How does ATP perform cellular work

It transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism. It is
produced as an energy source during the processes of photosynthesis
and cellular respiration and consumed by many enzymes and a multitude
of cellular processes including biosynthetic reactions, motility and
cell division.

What is the function of enzymes in a biological system

An enzyme acts as a catalyst, which speeds up reactions. Enzymes are
proteins in biological systems used to regulate the metabolism.

How does the structure of enzymes determine the enzyme specificity

Its like a lock and key mechanism where the substrate (this substance
the enzyme acts on) is the lock and the enzyme is the key; so only the
enzymes with the structure that fits perfectly into the substrate can
act on the substrate; hence specific enzymes act on specific substrates.

What is the induced-fit model of enzyme function

Only the proper substrate is capable of inducing the proper alignment
of the active site that will enable the enzyme to perform its
catalytic function. It suggests that the active site continues to
change until the substrate is completely bound to it, at which point
the final shape and charge is determined.

What effects do the enzymes have on the activation energy of the reaction

They lower the rate of the activation energy and speed up the reaction

How can temperature affect enzyme activity

It affects enzyme activity because enzymes are made of proteins and
as the temperature raises, the protein's molecular structure will be
more and more unstable until it denatures and breaks apart.

How can pH affect enzyme activity

The enzyme will denature if it is in too acidic or too basic of an
environment. Cofactors are molecules that will fit into the active
site of an enzyme and active/deactivate.

How can enzyme inhibitors affect enzyme activity

They are little molecules that will fit into an enzyme and prevent
the cofactor from reaching it and activating it.

Chapter 9