Tissues make up ___, which together make up ___ ___.
Most animals are composed of specialized ___ organized into ___
that have different functions.
A single-celled protist living in water has a sufficient ___ ___ of
plasma membrane to service its entire ___ of cytoplasm.
The ability to perform certain actions depends on an animal's ___,
___, and ___.
___ laws impose constraints on animal size and shape.
shape, size, and environment
___ is a "steady
state" or internal balance regardless of external
In humans, body temp, blood pH, glucose concentration, et cetera
are each maintained at a relatively constant level.
Regulating and Conforming
A ___ uses mechanisms to moderate internal change in the face
of environmental fluctuations. A ___ generally allows
internal conditions to vary with external changes.
Impulses from the nervous system can be received by ___, ___ cells,
and ___ cells.
Nerve signal transmission is very ___.
The ___ system transmits information between specific
-Information depends on a signal's pathway, not the type of signal
(i.e., a particular neuron either fires or it does not).
Consists of long cells called muscle fibers, which contract
in response to nerve signals.
____ muscle, or striated muscle, is responsible for voluntary
movement. ____ muscle is responsible for involuntary body
activities (e.g. digestion). ____ muscle is responsible for
contraction of the heart.
In vertebrates, fibers and foundation combine to form ___ major
types of connective tissue.
Binds and supports other tissues. Contains sparsely
packed cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix.
The matrix consists of fibers in either liquid, jellylike, or
The arrangement may be ___ (single cell layer), ___ (multiple tiers
of cells), or ____ (single layer of varying length).
Closely joined cells that cover body, surfaces, body cavities,
and internal organs. The shape may be ___ (like dice), ___
(like brick ends), or ___ (like floor tiles).
Animal Form and Function
Size and shape affect the way an animal interacts with its
environment. ____ is the study of the biological form of an
organism. ____ is the study of the biological functions an
Daily ___ is exhibited by many small mammals and birds, and seems to
be adapted to ___ patterns.
____, or summer torpor, enables animals to survive long periods of
high temperatures and scarce water supplies.
-Occurs most often in amphibians, but also in reptiles and invertebrates.
____ is long-term ____ that constitutes an adaptation to winter cold
and food scarcity.
____ is a physiological state in which activity is low and metabolism decreases.
-enables animals to save energy while avoiding difficult and
Adjusting ____ ____ Production
Many animals (mainly endotherms) can regulate body temperature
by adjusting their rate of ___ ___ production. Heat
production is increased by muscle activity such as moving or
Cooling by ___ ___ Loss
Many types of animals lose heat through evaporation of water
called ___. ___ increases the cooling effect in birds and
In ___, blood flow in the skin increases, facilitating the loss
of heat. In ___, blood flow in the skin decreases, lowering
the amount of heat lost.
Regulation of blood flow near the body surface significantly
affects heat exchange. Many animals can alter the amount of
blood flowing between the body core and the skin.
____ is a major thermoregulatory adaptation in ____ and
____. Skin, feathers, fur, and blubber reduce heat flow
between an animal and its environment.
Adaptations that help animals thermoregulate fall into five categories:
___ ___ adaptations ___ by ___ ___ loss
___ responses Adjusting ___ ___ production
In general, ___ tolerate ___ variation in internal
temperature. However, ___ continue to be active at a ___
range of external temperatures. Endothermy is also more
energetically expensive than ectothermy.
____ animals gain heat from external sources; most invertebrates and
vertebrates are ectotherms.
____ animals generate heat through metabolic processes; all birds and
mammals are endotherms.
____ is the process by which animals maintain an internal temperature
within a tolerable range.
Feedback Loops in Homeostasis
Most homeostatic controls function by negative feedback, where
buildup of the end product shuts the system off.
____ feedback loops occur in organisms, but do not usually
contribute to homeostasis.
Feedback Loops in Homeostasis
A dynamic equilibrium is maintained by ____ feedback, which helps to
return a ____ to either a normal range or a set point.
Tissues are classifed into four main categories:
____ tissue ____ tissue ____ tissue
____ tissue ____ tissue
Coordination and control in the body depend on ___ and ___
systems. The ___ ___ transmits chemical signals called ____
to receptive cells throughout the body via blood.
endocrine and nervous
Senses stimuli and transmits signal throughout the body.
Nervous tissue contains
-___, or nerve cells, that transmit nerve impulses.
-___ ___, or glia, that help nourish, insulate, and replenish neurons.
An animals size and shape directly affect how it exchanges ___ and
materials with its ___.
Exchange occurs as substances dissolved in the aqueous medium
diffuse and are transported across cell membranes.