Two complementary nucleotides in an RNA or a DNA molecule that are held together by hydrogen bonds�for example, G with C, and A with T or U.
The orderly sequence of events in which a cell duplicates in contents and divides into two
Specialized DNA sequence that allows duplicated chromosomes to be separated during M phase
The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up eukaryotic chromosomes. When the cell is not dividing, chromatin exists in its dispersed form, as a mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope
chromatin remodeling complexes
enzyme that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to alter the arrangement of nucleosomes in eukaryotic chromosomes, changing the accessibility of the underlying DNA to other proteins, including those involved in transcription
A long threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
Describes two molecular surfaces that for together closely and form non covalent bonds with each other
DNA. A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
two strands of nucleotides wound about each other; structure of DNA
The less condensed form of eukaryotic chromatin that is available for transcription.
a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.
process by which a gene produces its product and the product carries out its function
set of rules that specify to the codons in DNA or RNA that corresponds to the amino acids in proteins
All the genetic information in an organism; all of an organism's chromosomes.
Highly condensed region of an interphase chromosome; generally gene-poor and transcriptionally inactive
One small group of abundant highly conserved proteins around which DNA warp to form nucleosomes
histone modifying enzymes
Enzyme that catalyzes the covalent addition of a small molecule
An ordered display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
Large structure within the nucleus where ribosomal RNA is transcribed and ribosomal subunits are assembled
Bead-like structure in eukaryotic chromatin, composed of a short length of DNA wrapped around a core of histone proteins
nucleotide sequence at which DNA replication is initiated
repeating nucleotide at the ends of DNA molecules that do not form genes and help prevent the loss of genes
Life depends on what three things of genetic material?
1. Stable storage
What are the four nucleotides?
Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine
What nucleotide is in RNA?
What is a double helix composed of?
A pair of antiparallel, complementary DNA strands, which are held together by hydrogen bonds between G-C and A-T
Central Dogma of Biology
What happens when a gene is expressed?
Part of its nucleotide sequence is transcribed int RNA molecules, most of which are translated into proteins
How can a cell regulate its chromosomes structure?
By condensing and de condensing particular regions
When do chromosomes become visible?
during cell division
What are nucleotide subunits in DNA held together by?
DNA has two grooves name them.
Major and minor
Two closely related species can have similar ______ but different _________.
Genome size and chromosomes
What microscope can see nucleosomes?
Which chromosome is more compacted interphase or mitotic?
Nucleosomes are composed of
DNA tightly around histones
The pattern of modification of ______ tails can determine how a stretch of chromatin is handled by the cells.
The structure of chromatin varies along a ________ ___________ ___________.
Single interphase chromosome
What does heterochromatin specific histone modification do?
It allows heterochromatin to form and spread