a general, unifying explanation of observations
transmission electronic microscope
when biologists wish to study the VERY small internal organelles in cells, they are most like use which kind of microscope?
when biologists wish to see just the cell membrane and possible the nucleus in a cell, they are most likely to use what kind of microscope?
multiply the objective power times the ocular power. (The ocular power is always 10)
when calculating the total magnification of an image...
the course adjustment is NEVER used while viewing a specimen in what power?
the light microscope allows one to view processes in living cells.
the advantage of a light microscope over over an electron microscope is...
as the magnification increases the resolution ___________
as the magnification decreases the resolution _______________
dead or non living specimens
shoot a stream of electrons at the specimen
magnify more than a light microscope
are more expensive than light microscopes
electron microscope can only view...
1 or more cells
are living things are composed of how many cells?
the process by which an individual keeps internal conditions withing tolerable ranges
plants, algae, cyanobacteria
examples of producers
examples of consumers
examples of decomposers
both asexual and sexual reproduction
transmit genetic information from 1 generation to the next
energy and metabolism to maintain homeostasis
growth and development
response to stimuli
characteristics of life include
the weakest type of bond
adhesion and cohesion
the movement of water in plants against gravity requires...
binding of "like" molecules
it freezes (this is why ice floats on a lake and allows fish to swim below the ice.)
water is less dense when _________
____________ allows some insects to "walk on water". This is caused by what?
the sugar in a glass of kool aid is?
the water in a glass of kool aid is?
the kool aid in the glass is?
surfactants (make water wetter) (for example soap)
what reduces surface tension?
have no nucleus but have nucleoid regions
have no organelles but have ribosomes
the have a cell membrane and have cell walls
have a cell membrane and can have cells walls
animal cells (including human)
what are examples of eukaryotic cells
examples of prokaryotic cells
1 central vacuole
plants have how many vacuoles and what are they called?
vacuole absorbs _______ so that the cell can grow.
double layer that surrounds the cell membrane
long slender structure use for motility
contains the cell's DNA and controls the cell's activity
site of protein synthesis
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
site of cellular respiration that makes ATP
modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and lipids
contains digestive enzymes
collect waste, debris, and toxins
capture energy for photosynthesis
framework of proteins filaments that support and organize cells
too much volume for its surface area
what is a key problem faced by very large cells?
it would run short on food and wastes would build up inside the volume of the cell
what is a result of a cell having too much volume for its surface area?
fluid and semi-permeable
the plasma membrane of a cell is ______________
what reaction can occur without the input of energy?
______ is the measure of disorder or randomness
energy cannot be created or destroyed
what does the first law of thermodynamics state?
________ powers the cellular processes by breaking off a phosphate
_____________ speed up chemical reactions by lowering Activation energy. They are specific to their substrate and are not consumed. (used up)
a protein that binds to a substance outside the cell to trigger a change
a protein that tags a cell as belonging to "self
a protein that helps cells stick together.
a protein that speeds up a chemical reaction
a protein that assists ions and molecules across the membrane
the colored toothpicks in the toothpickase lab represented...
cell membranes are also know as what?