BIO 114 Unit 1 Review


a general, unifying explanation of observations

transmission electronic microscope

when biologists wish to study the VERY small internal organelles in cells, they are most like use which kind of microscope?

light microscope

when biologists wish to see just the cell membrane and possible the nucleus in a cell, they are most likely to use what kind of microscope?

multiply the objective power times the ocular power. (The ocular power is always 10)

when calculating the total magnification of an image...

high power

the course adjustment is NEVER used while viewing a specimen in what power?

the light microscope allows one to view processes in living cells.

the advantage of a light microscope over over an electron microscope is...


as the magnification increases the resolution ___________


as the magnification decreases the resolution _______________

dead or non living specimens
shoot a stream of electrons at the specimen
magnify more than a light microscope
are more expensive than light microscopes

electron microscope can only view...

1 or more cells

are living things are composed of how many cells?


the process by which an individual keeps internal conditions withing tolerable ranges

plants, algae, cyanobacteria

examples of producers


examples of consumers


examples of decomposers

both asexual and sexual reproduction

transmit genetic information from 1 generation to the next

energy and metabolism to maintain homeostasis
growth and development
response to stimuli

characteristics of life include

hydrogen bonds

the weakest type of bond

adhesion and cohesion

the movement of water in plants against gravity requires...


binding of "like" molecules

it freezes (this is why ice floats on a lake and allows fish to swim below the ice.)

water is less dense when _________

surface tension

____________ allows some insects to "walk on water". This is caused by what?


the sugar in a glass of kool aid is?


the water in a glass of kool aid is?


the kool aid in the glass is?

surfactants (make water wetter) (for example soap)

what reduces surface tension?

prokaryotic cells

have no nucleus but have nucleoid regions
have no organelles but have ribosomes
the have a cell membrane and have cell walls

eukaryotic cells

have nucleus
have organelles
have a cell membrane and can have cells walls

animal cells (including human)
plant cells
fungi cells
protist cells

what are examples of eukaryotic cells

bacteria cells

examples of prokaryotic cells

1 central vacuole

plants have how many vacuoles and what are they called?


vacuole absorbs _______ so that the cell can grow.

cell wall

double layer that surrounds the cell membrane


long slender structure use for motility


contains the cell's DNA and controls the cell's activity


makes ribosomes


site of protein synthesis

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

synthesize lipids


site of cellular respiration that makes ATP

golgi complex/apparatus/body

modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and lipids


contains digestive enzymes


collect waste, debris, and toxins


capture energy for photosynthesis


framework of proteins filaments that support and organize cells

too much volume for its surface area

what is a key problem faced by very large cells?

it would run short on food and wastes would build up inside the volume of the cell

what is a result of a cell having too much volume for its surface area?

fluid and semi-permeable

the plasma membrane of a cell is ______________

spontaneous reaction

what reaction can occur without the input of energy?


______ is the measure of disorder or randomness

energy cannot be created or destroyed

what does the first law of thermodynamics state?


________ powers the cellular processes by breaking off a phosphate


_____________ speed up chemical reactions by lowering Activation energy. They are specific to their substrate and are not consumed. (used up)

recpetor proteins

a protein that binds to a substance outside the cell to trigger a change

recognition protein

a protein that tags a cell as belonging to "self

adhesion protein

a protein that helps cells stick together.


a protein that speeds up a chemical reaction

transport protein

a protein that assists ions and molecules across the membrane

competitive inhibitors

the colored toothpicks in the toothpickase lab represented...

phosopholipid bilayer

cell membranes are also know as what?