DNA and Cell Division

deoxyribonuleic acid

DNA defenition

the blueprint for life

metaphor for DNA


substance that stores and transmits genetic information from one generation to the next


where is DNA located?

copies itself, codes for proteins

two purposes of DNA


subunits of DNA that join together to form a long chain of DNA, examples being A, T, G, and C

5-carbon sugar, phosphate group, nitrogen base

ingredients of nucleotides


what nitrogen base does thymine group up with


what nitrogen base matches up with guanine

double helix

what shape is DNA

Watson and Crick, Rosalind Franklin

which two scientists are credited with discovering the DNA structure (with help from _____)?

Edwin Chargaff

who discovered complementary nitrogen base pairing?

double bond

what type of bond do thymine and adenine share?

triple bond

what type of bond do guanine and cytosine share?

DNA synthesis

before a cell divides, it must go through this process to copy the DNA to pass on to the daughter cells

helicase, nucleotides, DNA polymerase

In the three steps of DNA synthesis, ______ "unzips" the DNA by breaking the bonds, _______ from the nucleus will bond with the single DNA strands, and ________ "proofreads" the DNA

protein synthesis

the process where proteins are created from the DNA code


messenger RNA abbreviation


transfer RNA abbreviation

ribose, uracil, single strand, short

differences from DNA to RNA compared to deoxyribose, thymine, double helix, and long traits of DNA


mRNA synthesis"; the transferring of information from DNA to mRNA

promoter, RNA polymerase, RNA nucleotides, terminator

Transcription steps: using a _______ (section of DNA that begins the code for a protein), _______ splits the DNA; ________ bond with the unzipped DNA; _________ sequence ends the protein code and the mRNA splits


the process in which the "message" carried by mRNA is decoded into an amino acid chain

ribosome, tRNA, amino acids

Translation steps: mRNA attaches to a _______ (usually in an ER); _______ attaches to said ribosome which then transfers amino acids to the complement mRNA; combined _________ make a protein strand.


mRNA sequence is classified as the _______ in translation


tRNA sequence is classified as the _______in translation


a change of the DNA sequence causes _______; also caused by errors in DNA synthesis or mutagens

point mutation

when one nitrogen base on the DNA is switched

frameshift mutation

a nucleotide is either inserted or removed

producing more cells

how do living things grow?

can't, live, divide, die

Limits of Cell Growth: cells _______ grow forever, cells _____, _____, and _____

nerve cells

this type of cell doesn't divide

contact inhibition

cells will grow until they come in contact with other cells

uncontrolled cell growth

what causes cancer in cells?

stomatic cells

body cells are called this and go through mitosis


sex cells are called this and go through meiosis


a strand of DNA that stuck to its copy (forms 'X')


the thread-like material that makes up a chromosome; made of DNA and proteins


one strand of DNA in the condensed form

cell division

the process in which a cell divides into two daughter cells

cell cycle, interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis

the life of a cell; consists of three parts: ______, _______, and ________


the period between cell division; cell is NOT resting; growth and DNA synthesis occurs now


the division of the chromosomes; has four stages


gamete formation which occurs in sex organs

reduction division

the number of chromosomes is cut in half so when sexual reproduction occurs, each cell carries half the number needed and when they combine the daughter cell has the correct amount of chromosomes


chromosome from mom and dad that share the code for the same trait


during this stage of mitosis, the nucleus disappears, chromosomes condense and become visible, centrioles are create and move to opposite ends, and spindles form


during this stage of mitosis, the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell


during this stage of mitosis, the chromosomes are split (then called chromatid) and move to opposite ends


during this phase of mitosis, being the opposite of prophase, a nucleus forms and the chromatids unwind


during this stage of mitosis, the cytoplasm divides and creates two new cells, while in plant cells a cell plate forms to divide it

synaptic bond, tetrad

homologs attach using a _______ during the prophase I stage in meiosis, turning it into a _______

anaphase I, dyads

this stage of meiosis, the synaptic bond between the tetrad breaks to form two ________

anaphase II

______ begins when the centromere breaks


the bond between two DNA strands when they form a chromosome

92, 46, 23

the number of chromosomes goes from ___ to ____ to ____ during meiosis

46, 92, 46

the number of chromosomes goes from ___ to ____ to _____ during mitosis


how many cells with s=1 would fit into a cell with s=3?


what happens to the surface area to volume ratio and the surface are to mass ratio when the cell gets larger?

phosphate groups and sugars

what two things make up the double helix handrails of DNA?


two sets of chromosomes; pairs of 23 chromosomes; representative symbol is 2n


name for 23 chromosomes; representative is n


the creation of sperm cells; produces four sperm cells


the creation of an egg cell; only 1/4 of the produced cells will survive with the correct of organelles