Bio definitions of cells


_______ are surface appendages that allow a bacterium to stick to a surface.


What is the function of a bacterium's capsule?


The ______ region contains DNA in a bacterial cell because bacteria lack a nucleus.


In bacteria, the _______ synthesize proteins (polypeptides).

Cell Wall

What name is given to the rigid structure, found outside the plasma membrane, that surrounds and supports the bacterial cell?

plasma membrane

the bacterial structure that acts as a selective barrier, allowing nutrients to enter the cell and wastes the leave the cell.

Extra cellular matrix

Holds the cells together


the structural framework of the cell
serve as tracks for transporting cargo


Produces ATP
outer membrane & inner membrane

Nuclear envelope

double membrane enclosing nucleus


houses genetic material of cell (DNA)


travel from nucleus to cytoplasm, carrying instructions for making specific proteins.

Smooth ER

lacks ribosomes
synthesize lipids, poison detoxification, calcium ion storage

Rough ER

covered in ribosomes
protein synthesis

Golgi Apparatus

cis to medial to trans
protein modification
cisternal maturation


Macromolecule digestion

prokaryotic cells only


Eukaryotic only


Prokaryotic and eukaryotic organelles

plasma membrane

Proteins synthesized by bound ribosomes

Lysosomal enzymes
ER protein

The pathway of secretory proteins

Protein synthesis
cis Golgi Apparatus
medial Golgi Apparatus
trans Golgi Apparatus
plasma membrane
extracellular space


the first of the two main steps in protein synthesis

Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are composed of ______.


plant organelles only

cellulose cell wall
central vacuole

animal organelles only


Both animal and plant organelles

endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi Apparatus
plasma membrane

Plant Cell Wall

strong,protective structure made from cellulose fibrils

Central Vacuole

regulates cytoplasm composition
creates internal pressure
stores cell compounds


-makes sugar by converting light energy into chemical energy
-contain the green pigment called chlorophyll
-have membranous sacs called thylakoids that are surrounded by a fluid called stroma

Tight junctions

form a barrier that prevents fluids from moving between cells

Desmosomes (anchoring junctions)

bind cells together in animals

Gap junctions

allow for the passage of material between cells, thus facilitating communication between these cells.

Cell fractionation

can be used to separate different organelles to study their function separate from the rest of the cell

Prokaryotic cells lack

any internal membranous compartmentalization

The relationship between ribosomes and a nucleus in a Eukaryotic cell

Ribosomes are first assembled in the nucleus, and the nucleus contains instructions for protein synthesis.

Proteins that will be secreted are always enclosed by

by some membrane of the endomembrane system until they are secreted.

Mitochondria and chloroplasts

contain their own DNA and ribosomes.

cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells

the contraction of muscle cells in animals
maintaining the position of the nucleus in the cell
determining the shape of animal cells
the beating of cilia or flagella

extracellular structures (plant cell walls and the extracellular matrix of animal cells)

Some extracellular structures provide for cytoplasmic connections between adjacent cells.
Extracellular structures can play a role in determining cell shape.
Information can be transmitted from these extracellular structures to the cytoplasm.
Proteins and