Bio definitions of cells

Fimbriae

_______ are surface appendages that allow a bacterium to stick to a surface.

Protection

What is the function of a bacterium's capsule?

Nucleoid

The ______ region contains DNA in a bacterial cell because bacteria lack a nucleus.

Ribosomes

In bacteria, the _______ synthesize proteins (polypeptides).

Cell Wall

What name is given to the rigid structure, found outside the plasma membrane, that surrounds and supports the bacterial cell?

plasma membrane

the bacterial structure that acts as a selective barrier, allowing nutrients to enter the cell and wastes the leave the cell.

Extra cellular matrix

Holds the cells together

cytoskeleton

the structural framework of the cell
serve as tracks for transporting cargo

Mitochondria

Produces ATP
outer membrane & inner membrane

Nuclear envelope

double membrane enclosing nucleus

nucleus

houses genetic material of cell (DNA)

mRNA

travel from nucleus to cytoplasm, carrying instructions for making specific proteins.

Smooth ER

lacks ribosomes
synthesize lipids, poison detoxification, calcium ion storage

Rough ER

covered in ribosomes
protein synthesis

Golgi Apparatus

cis to medial to trans
protein modification
cisternal maturation

Lysosomes

Macromolecule digestion
autophagy

prokaryotic cells only

nucleoid

Eukaryotic only

Nucleolus
Mitochodria
Lysosome

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic organelles

ribosomes
flagella
plasma membrane

Proteins synthesized by bound ribosomes

Lysosomal enzymes
insulin
ER protein

The pathway of secretory proteins

Protein synthesis
cis Golgi Apparatus
medial Golgi Apparatus
trans Golgi Apparatus
plasma membrane
extracellular space

Transcription

the first of the two main steps in protein synthesis

Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are composed of ______.

microtubules

plant organelles only

cellulose cell wall
chloroplast
central vacuole

animal organelles only

centriole

Both animal and plant organelles

nucleus
mitochondria
endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi Apparatus
plasma membrane
cytoskeleton

Plant Cell Wall

strong,protective structure made from cellulose fibrils

Central Vacuole

regulates cytoplasm composition
creates internal pressure
stores cell compounds

Chloroplast

-makes sugar by converting light energy into chemical energy
-contain the green pigment called chlorophyll
-have membranous sacs called thylakoids that are surrounded by a fluid called stroma

Tight junctions

form a barrier that prevents fluids from moving between cells

Desmosomes (anchoring junctions)

bind cells together in animals

Gap junctions

allow for the passage of material between cells, thus facilitating communication between these cells.

Cell fractionation

can be used to separate different organelles to study their function separate from the rest of the cell

Prokaryotic cells lack

any internal membranous compartmentalization

The relationship between ribosomes and a nucleus in a Eukaryotic cell

Ribosomes are first assembled in the nucleus, and the nucleus contains instructions for protein synthesis.

Proteins that will be secreted are always enclosed by

by some membrane of the endomembrane system until they are secreted.

Mitochondria and chloroplasts

contain their own DNA and ribosomes.

cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells

the contraction of muscle cells in animals
maintaining the position of the nucleus in the cell
determining the shape of animal cells
the beating of cilia or flagella

extracellular structures (plant cell walls and the extracellular matrix of animal cells)

Some extracellular structures provide for cytoplasmic connections between adjacent cells.
Extracellular structures can play a role in determining cell shape.
Information can be transmitted from these extracellular structures to the cytoplasm.
Proteins and