compounds that are synthesized by cells and contain carbon
things made of hydrogen and carbons
the chain of carbon atoms in organic molecules;
can be unbranched (butane) or branched (isobutane)
compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures
the groups in an organic molecule that usually participate in chemical reactions
water loving; soluble in water
a group that consists of a hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom. the O is bonded to the carbon skeleton of a molecule
a group where a carbon atom is linked by a double bond to an oxygen atom; if the carbon atom in the group is at the end of the carbon skeleton, it is called an aldehyde. If the group within a carbon chain is called ketones
a group where an oxygen atom double- bonds to a carbon that is also bonded to a hydroxyl group.
an acid that contains carboxyl groups
a group composed a nitrogen atom bonded to 2 hydrogen atoms.
organic compounds with an amino group
a gigantic molecule that makes up life; includes 4 classes
a large molecule consisting of many identical or similar molecular units strung together.
units that are the building blocks of polymers
the process where cells link together to form polymers; for each monomer added to chain, a water molecule is removed.
a process where cell bonds break bonds between monomers by adding water to them.
a class of macromolecules which include mono- and polysaccharides;
a monomer for carbohydrates; generally have the molecular formula of CH2O; includes glucose and fructose
a double sugar made from 2 monosaccharides through dehydration synthesis; includes sucrose
polymers linked together through dehydration synthesis; includes starch and sugar
a storage polysaccharide in plant roots; made up of glucose monomers; the helix can be branched or unbranched
a polysaccaride used by animals to store excess sugar
a polysaccharide made of glucose monomers and used as walls in plant cells
a class of macromolecules that consist of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by nonpolar covalent bonds
water fearing; don't mix with water
a large lipid made from glycerol and fatty acids
another name for fat; made of glycerol and 3 fatty acids
fatty acids and fats with double bonds; they have less than the max. number of hydrogen
fats with the maximum number of hydrogens
a component of cell membranes; are similar to fats, but contain phosphorus
consist of a fatty acid linked to an alcohol; are hydrophobic, so are used as natural water-proof coating for animals
A type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached.
a synthetic variant of the male hormone testosterone that mimics some of its effects
a polymer made from amino acid monomers; there are 7 classes
protein that acts as a biological catalyst; can speed up chemical reactions
organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group
the bond between 2 amino acids in a polypeptide; made by dehydration synthesis
a chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
a process in which a protein unravels and loses its native conformation, thereby becoming biologically inactive. For DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix; occurs under extreme conditions of pH, salt concentration, and temperature.
The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain.
The second level of protein structure; the regular local patterns of coils or folds of a polypeptide chain.
A spiral shape constituting one form of the secondary structure of proteins, arising from a specific hydrogen-bonding structure.
One form of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypeptide chain folds back and forth, or where two regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds.
The third level of protein structure; the overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain.
The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits.
polymers that serve as blueprints for proteins
a type of nucleic acid that holds genetic information
a type of nucleic acid that translates genetic information given by DNA
chemical factors that determine traits
monomers that make up nucleic acids
a functional group consisting of a phosphorus atom covalently bonded to four oxygen atoms
the nitrogen containing bases of the nucleotide
two strands of nucleotides wound about each other; structure of DNA