biology eukaryotes 1, 2, 3


a membrane bound structure that performs a specific function in the cell

cell membrane

surrounds and defines cell; is selectively permeable

cell membrane structure

phospholipid bilayer with proteins, carbohydrates and other lipids imbedded in its surface

plant cell wall

provides structure; made of cellulose


fills in spaces between cellulose molecules, which makes the cell wall even stronger


highly hydrophobic; helps keep water out of the cell


glues plant cell together

parts of plant cell wall

lignin, suberin, pectin


contains DNA, largest and easiest to see organelle

multinucleate cells

eukaryotic cells with multiple nuclei (liver/muscle cells)

anucleate cells

cells with no nucleus (red blood cells, sieve cells)


not an organelle; located in the nucleus; site of protein production

nuclear envelope

double membrane that surrounds the nucleus; contains nuclear pores

nuclear pores

allow certain substances to pass from cytoplasm to nucleus and vice versa; are selectively permeable

endoplasmic reticulum

dynamic system with a single membrane; site of protein and phospholipid synthesis

smooth er

site of fatty acid/phospholipid synthesis; calcium (Ca2+) storage; anchoring place of many enzymes

rough er

does everything as it's counterpart but has ribosomes attached to it; proteins are made here and are exported to the golgi body


no membrane; produced in nucleolus; site of protein synthesis; can be attached to rough er or free floating; made of two subunits

free floating ribosomes

make proteins that stay inside the cell

golgi body structure

single membrane; contains flattened compartments and vesicles (single membrane sacs)

golgi body function

sorts, packages, transports proteins to parts of the cell


single membrane; "recycling center"; breaks down certain cell components and materials internalized from the environment


the membrane around the lysosome breaks and releases digestive enzymes so the cell can digest itself


single membrane; contain enzymes that break down harmful compounds (alcohol, poison); contains enzyme catalase; important in breakdown of fatty acids

mitochondria function

to make ATP

mitochondrial structure

double membrane- inner membrane is smooth, outer is folded into cristae; shaped like a kidney bean; possess own DNA and ribosomes


finger-like projections formed by outer membrane

intermembrane space

space between inner and outer mitochondrial membranes


space inside inner membrane where DNA (mtDNA), ribosomes, and enzymes for certain steps of ATP production are located


mitochondrial DNA; circular molecule; mitochondria contains multiple; products of it stay inside the mitochondria and are not exported; inherited from your mother


an organelle found in the cells of plants; have an inner and outer membrane, and contain their own DNA and ribosomes; some contain pigments; three types

chromoplast (plastid)

pigment storage

leucoplast (plastid)

organic molecule (amyloplast = starch storage, eliaoplast = fat storage, proteinoplast = protein storage)

chloroplast (plastid)

site of photosynthesis; encased by a double membrane and have their own DNA and ribosomes; contain thylakoids


flattened, membrane bound disks (a stack = granum (grana pl.))


network of protein filaments that give cell shape; no membrane; self assembling; involved in cell division and organelle transport; made of 3 different protein filaments

flagella and cilia

attached to cell membrane but have no membrane; used for movement


longer than other; used like propellers; found in less abundance


shorter of the two; used like oars; found in abundance


barrel shaped structure; no membrane; have a role in cell division and flagella/cilia production; not found in plant cells

intracellular junctions

no membrane but are connections between cell membranes of neighboring cells;

intracellular junctions function

required in multicellular organisms for communication, adherence, and interaction with other cells

plant cell intracellular junctions

uses plasmodesmata through which cytoplasm of adjoining cells are connected and can thus communicate


channels in the plant cell wall used for intracellular junction (comparable to gap junctions)

tight junctions (animal cell intracellular junctions)

leak proof seals between neighboring cells

gap junctions (animal cell intracellular junctions)

channels between cells in which proteins surround each channel/pore and the pores allow salts/sugars/amino acids/small molecules through to pass (comparable to plasmodesmata)


places where cells are joined to one another; important in muscle and skin cells

single membrane organelles

cell membrane, smooth er, rough er, golgi body, lsysome, vacuole, peroxisome

double membrane organelles

nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplast/plastids

no membrane organelles

ribosomes, cytoskeleton, intercellular junctions, flagella/cilia, centriole


single membrane; used for storage; can store wastes, poisons, acids, salts, etc.

6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight (energy) ? C6H12O6 + 6O2

photosynthesis chemical equation

carbon dioxide + water + sunlight (energy) ---> glucose + oxygen

photosynthesis word equation

C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---> 6H2O + 6CO2 + 36ATP

aerobic respiration chemical equation

glucose + oxygen ---> water + carbon dioxide + ATP energy

aerobic respiration word equation

calvin cycle equation

6CO2 + ATP + Electrons + (H+) ? C6H12O6

light reaction equation

Sunlight + 6H20 ? (12H+) + 3O2 + Electrons + ATP

what is the importance of oxygen?

if it wasn't there to accept the electrons, the Electron Transport Chain would get backed up and no energy would be produced, meaning the organism cannot live


ATP made in krebs cycle and glycolysis

32 ATP

ATP made in electron transport chain

photosynthesis definition

process by which plants and other photoautotrophs produce glucose (sugars) from the energy of sunlight

aerobic respiration definition

the process that released energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen

the bonds between the phosphates

energy in atp is stored in


glycolysis occurs in

matrix of mitochondria

Krebs Cycle occurs in

innermembrane of mitochondria

electron transport chain occurs in


Glycolysis is the same as

glycolysis step 1

1 molecule of glucose is converted into 2 molecules of pyruvate by a long series of reactions; 2 ATP are generated in the process

glycolysis step 2

Each pyruvate then enters the mitochondrion where they are each converted into Acetyl- CoA:
2 Pyruvate ? 2 Acetyl-CoA + 2CO2 + electrons

glycolysis step 3

The Acetyl-CoA enter the Krebs Cycle The electrons move on to the Electron Transport Chain

matrix of mitochondria

Acetyl -CoA is made in

krebs cycle step 1

Acetyl- CoA is converted into CO2, hydrogens & electrons and 2 ATP are generated

krebs cycle step 2

electrons and hydrogens move on to the Electron Transport Chain

electron transport chain step 1

electrons from Glycolysis & the Krebs Cycle are passed from electron carrier to electron carrier

electron transport chain step 2

hydrogens are pumped into the intermembrane space
which leads to a high concentration of hydrogens on one side of the membrane

electron transport chain step 3

ATP Synthase allows the hydrogens to move down their concentration gradient and in the process
ATP is made from ADP & P

electron transport chain step 4

32 ATP are made


the generation of ATP by the movement of hydrogen down its concentration gradient; occurs in electron transport chain

water, sunlight, carbon dioxide

Photosynthesis requirements


photosynthesis occurs in the


molecules that absorb a specific range of light colors


colors that we see are


colors that we don't see are

chlorophyll AA absorbs

violet, indigo and red/orange light and the greens and yellows are reflected; this
is why plants appear green

chlorophyll BB

absorb blue and orange; appears light green


absorb blue, purple, and green; appear red, orange, yellow


appear red

lutein and zeaxanthin

appears yellow

why do leaves change color in the fall?

as the quality of light decreases, the plants break down their chlorophyll, but the other pigments remain

thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast

chlorophyll is embedded in the

light reactions step 1

chlorophyll absorbs light which causes electrons to become dislodged from it; the energy in some of these electrons will be used to make ATP- the rest of the electrons are taken to the calvin cycle

light reactions step 2

an enzyme breaks down water into hydrogen ions, oxygen, and electrons; oxygen is released into the atmosphere; electrons replace lost electrons in chloroplasts; hydrogen ions are taken to calvin cycle

light reactions products

oxygen (waste), hydrogen ions, ATP, electrons

calvin cycle step 1

plants use carbon dioxide form atmosphere and electrons, hydrogen ions, and ATP to make glucose

are made in light reactions but used in Calvin cycle

electrons, ATP, hydrogen ions

how do plants make energy?

using photosynthesis to make glucose and aerobic respiration to convert glucose to energy

electron carriers

proteins embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondria; pass electrons among one another in the electron transport chain

aerobic respiration vs digestion

one is the breakdown of polymers into their monomers; the other is the breakdown of monomers in order to convert the energy into ATP energy


carries electrons from one reaction to another to produce ATP

catabolic pathways

chemical reactions that break down complex molecules into smaller units, usually releasing energy in the process

starch (catabolic pathway)

broken down into monosaccharides which enter glycolysis

fats (catabolic pathway)

broken down into fatty acid and glycerol; fatty acids are cut up into 2 carbon compounds which are converted into acetyl- CoA which enters the krebs cycle

proteins (catabolic pathway)

broken into amino acids which can be converted into acetyl- CoA that can enter the krebs cycle; the amino group is excreted and removed as urea