Bio Exam 1

Science

Production of knowledge!!!

Scientific Method

Technique used worldwide to produce knowledge. Question-Background research-Hypothesis-experiment to test hypothesis- analyze results then accept or reject hypothesis.

taxonomy

field of biology concerned with classifying organisms and viruses; accepted pattern is Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species (do kings play chess on fine green sand)

Systematics

the reconstruction and study of evolutionary relationships (phylogenies)

phylogeny

the evolutionary history of an organism, including which species are closely related and in what order related species evolved; often represented in the form or an evolutionary tree that are constructed based on morphological analysis, DNA sequences, and

domains

Eukarya, Archaea (small, single celled, cell wall, no nucleus, can live in extreme conditions) , Bacteria (greatest # niches) Kingdoms of Plantae, Fungi, Animalia and Protista are all in the Eukarya Domain - What are the main characters (synapomorphy) tha

Protista

polyphyletic paraphyletic group or organisms that do not fit within Animalia, Plantae, or Fungi

Fungi

taxa with a cell wall, external digestion, and lacking photosynthesis capability

convergent evolution

the independent development of similar structures in organisms that are not directly related; often found in organisms living in similar environments

derived characters

a characteristic used in taxonomic analysis representing a departure from the primitive (ancestor) form; in cladistics, characteristics between the branch points of a cladogram that are shared by all organisms above the branch point and are not present in

cladistics

a taxonomic technique used for creating hierarchies or organisms that represent true phylogenetic relationship and descent. This technique has multiple uses including the HIV court case.

ancestral characteristics

characteristics that have arisen in organisms as a result of common evolutionary descent

character state

In cladistics, one of two or more distinguishable forms of a character, such as the presence or absence of teeth in amniote vertebrates

polarize

in cladistics, to determine whether character states are ancestral or derived

cladogram

a graphical representation of possible evolutionary relationships, based on polarization of characters, in which taxa are placed at the tips, not at the branch points, of the phylogenetic tree and shared, derived characteristics common to taxa above the b

clade

a group containing all descendants of a common ancestor

synapomorphy

in systematics, a derived character that is shared by clade members; best mechanism to analyze the evolutionary sequence in the development of a complex character

plesiomorphy

in cladistics, another term for an ancestral character state

symplesiomorphy

in cladistics, another term for a shared ancestral/primitive or outgroup character state
(I remember this by saying the primitive trait is the most symplesiomorphy)

homoplasy

in cladistics, a shared character state that has not been inherited from a common ancestor exhibiting that state; may result from convergent evolution or evolutionary reversal. The wings of birds and of bats, which are convergent

principle of parsimony

principle state that scientists should favor the hypothesis that requires the fewest assumptions; simplest phylogenetic tree should be chosen

monophyletic

in phylogenetic classification, a group that includes the most recent common ancestor of the group and all its descendants. A clade is a monophyletic group

paraphyletic

in phylogenetic classification, a group that includes the most recent common ancestor of the group, but not all its descendants

polyphyletic

in phylogenetic classification, a group that does not include the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group

biological species concept (BSC)

the concept that defines species as groups of populations that have the potential to interbreed and that are reproductively isolated from other groups

phylogenetic species concept (PSC)

the concept that defines species on the basis of their phylogenetic relationships

reproductive isolation

not being able to mate outside one's group

outgroup

An outgroup is an organism that is considered not to be part of the group in question, but is closely related to the group. The evolutionary conclusion from this is that the outgroup branched from the parent group before the other two groups branched from

horizontal gene transfer

transfer of genes between different species, both prokaryotic or eukaryotic

ancient earth

age of ~4.5by
early reducing atmosphere including carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen sulfide, methane, no oxygen

more Ancient earth

Cooling allowed for the formation of the earth's crust. Plate tectonics has modified the land configuration in the globe and has affected evolution. What are some of the evidence that plate tectonic is true?

oldest microfossils

prokaryotes, emerging ~3.5 bya
Consider: Eukaryotic cells were not until ~2.1 bya & multicellular organisms not until ~700 mya

Miller Urey experiment

included assembling a reducing atmosphere with H2, CH4, NH3, and H2S, placing this atmosphere over liquid water, increasing the temperature of the gases, and providing energy with electrical spark discharges which produced amino acid glycine, hydrogen cya

properties of life

cellular organization, sensitivity, growth, development, reproduction, regulation, homeostasis, and heredity

Bacteria and Archaebacteria Domains

contain no eukaryotes

life's diversity

results from sexual reproduction, endosymbiosis, horizontal gene transfer, and mutation

Water on earth

What are some of the hypothesis for the existence of water on earth?

Fossils

Rare event but important for the reconstruction of evolution.

Glaciation

These events strongly affected the evolution of the species and some of the mass extinction. Plants might have created its own glaciation event by consuming the CO2 with the help of big algae blooms.

Earths changing systems

How has climate led to increased diversity but has also led to mass extinction

Oxygen

Excreted oxygen allowed for the formation of the ozone layer. What are these 2 so important for life.

DNA

found in nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts

radioisotope dating

Fossils can be dated using a measured amount of a given isotope as well as the amount of isotope (decay product) produced when the isotope decays

earliest cells

probably anaerobic, heterotrophic, prokaryotic and arose during Archean Eon

endosymbiosis

prokaryotic cells being engulfed and becoming internal symbionts within an early eukaryotic cell

Multicellularity

Leads to cell specialization in eukaryotic organisms. Single celled organisms have limitations.

Compartmentalization

In eukaryotic organisms we see increases subcellular specialization and nuclear membranes allow for additional levels of control in transcription and translation.

Sexual reproduction

Leads to increased diversity (meiosis, crossing over).

Cambrian Explosion

rapid increase in major animal groups' diversity; oxygen levels support larger animals

First Plants (non-algae) and Animals

Appeared just over 500MYA: Land plants, Fish

land plants

appear in fossil record Ordovician Period which most likely originated from algae

fishes

Started in the Silurian (450MYA)

reptiles

appear during Carboniferous Period (300MYA)

Dinosaurs

existed from the Triassic to the end of the Cretaceous (200MYA to 100MYA)

mammals

arose from mammal-like reptiles in the Triassic but remained small and insignificant while dinosaurs dominated (60MYA)

mass extinctions

have occurred about 4 or 5 times in fossil record, due in some cases to catastrophic changes