Chapter 34 bio quiz - ponzo

What is made up of glands that produce and release their chemicals directly into the bloodstream?

Endocrine system

Where are the messages sent to?

Throughout the body

What are the chemicals that travel through the bloodstream and affect the activities of other cells?

Hormones

What are the cells that receive a specific hormone?

Target cell

What is an organ that produces and releases a substance or secretion?

Gland

What release their secretions through tube like structures called ducts?

Exocrine glands

What are tube like structures?

Ducts

What controls activity of all other glands?

Pituitary gland

What is another name for a pituitary gland?

Master Gland

Where is the pituitary gland located?

Base of the brain

What are the two lobes of the pituitary gland?

Anterior and posterior

What stimulates the secretion of the thyroid hormone thyroxin?

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

What does thyroid-stimulating hormone regulate?

Metabolism

What stimulates the development of follicles in the ovaries of females?

Follicle-stimulating hormones

What does the follicle-stimulating hormone tell the ovary to do?

Release an egg every 28 days

In males, what does the follicle-stimulating hormone influence?

Sperm production

What doesn't produce hormones but stores made by hypothalamus?

Posterior lobe

What causes the uterus to contract during childbirth?

Oxytocin

What causes labor pains?

Oxytocin

What does oxytocin release?

Milk in nursing mothers

What is attached to posterior lobe?

Hypothalamus

What controls the secretions of pituitary gland?

Hypothalamus

What is located at the base of the neck?

Thyroid gland

What wraps around the upper part of the trachea?

Thyroid gland

What is the iodine-containing hormone that is produced by the thyroid gland?

Thyroxin

What registers the rate of metabolism in the body and is essential for normal physical and mental development?

Thyroxin

What results in nervousness, elevated body temperature, increase heart and metabolic rates, increase blood pressure, and increase weight loss?

Hyperthyroidism

What is a decrease in metabolic waste, decrease body temperature, lack of energy, increase in weight gain?

Hypothyroidism

What is associated with Goiter?

Hypothyroidism

What is an enlargement of the thyroid gland?

Goiter

What is located on the back surface of the thyroid gland?

Parathyroid gland

What does the hormone the parathyroid gland secretes?

Parathormone

What controls calcium levels in blood and calcium deposits in bones and teeth?

Parathormone

What is located on the top of each kidney?

Adrenal gland

What is another name for adrenal gland?

Gland of emergency

What secretes the hormone adrenaline, "Fight or flight," which increased the blood glucose leek and accelerates the heartbeat and breathing rates?

Adrenal medulla

What is released in times of stress and heavy excercise?

Adrenaline

What is located along the right side of and behind the stomach?

Pancreas

What does the pancreas lead to?

Small intestines

What type of gland is a pancreas?

Exocrine and endocrine

What contains clusters of cells that resembles islands called Islets of Langerhans?

Pancreas

What secretes hormones insulin and glucagon?

Islets of Langerhans

What changes glucose in the liver and muscles?

Insulin

What promotes the absorption of glucose from the blood into the body cells, lowering the blood of glucose level?

Insulin

What increased the blood glucose level by promoting the conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver and muscles?

Glucagon

Through their opposite effects, what functions to help the body maintain homeostasis by keeping the blood glucose level stable?

Insulin and glucagon

What is a disorder in which the islets of Langerhans do not secrete adequate amounts of insulin into the bloodstream and as a result the blood glucose is elevated? (too much sugar in the blood)

Hyperglycemia

What needs insulin injections to change glucose to glycogen?
Excess glucose is secreted in urine

Hyperglycemia

What is another name for Hyperglycemia?

Diabetes

What are gonads?

Sex glands/Reproductive Glands

What are the functions of Gonads?

Production of gametes and secretions of sex hormones

Which gender has the testes secrete the sex hormone testosterone?

Males

What stimulates the development of the male reproductive organs, secondary sex characteristics, and stimulates production of sperm?

Testosterone

In which gender has the ovaries secrete the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone?

Females

What influences the development of the female reproductive organs, secondary sex characteristics, and stimulates production of egg cells?

Estrogen

What stimulates the thickening of the uterine lining in preparation for the implantation of an embryo (fertilized egg cell)?

Progesterone

What are the secondary sex characteristics of males?

Deeper voice, facial hair, stronger upper arms

What are the secondary sex characteristics of females?

Higher voices, wider hips, prevent facial hair

What stops menstrual cycle and stops production of estrogen?

Menopause

What is the pleasure center of brain?

Libido

What are the 2 chemicals libido produces?

Endorphins and endophalins

What relieves plain? (Example: Morphine)

Endorphins

What gives you pleasure?

Endophalins

When the hormone produced by a gland reaches a certain level in the blood. What is this?

Negative Feedback

What is shut down if it goes past this level? It doesn't release anymore of the hormone.

Pituitary Gland

What produces hormones that regulate many of the other endocrine glands and some organs?

Pituitary Gland

What releases the parathyroid hormone, which regulates the level of calcium in the blood?

Parathyroid Gland

What releases hormones that help the body respond to stress?

Adrenal Glands

What produces thyroxine, which regulates metabolism throughout the body?

Thyroid

What produces insulin and glucagon, which regulate the level of glucose in the blood?

Pancreas

What produces estrogens and progesterone?

Ovaries

What produce testosterone, which is responsible for sperm production and the development of male secondary sex characteristics?

Testes

What isn't an endocrine gland?

Swear gland

What best describes the relationship between hypothalamus and pituitary gland?

The hypothalamus produces releasing hormones that promote the release of particular hormones from the anterior pituitary.