Bio Exam2


Is the science of defining organisms into groups based on their shared characteristics and giving names to the groups they're separated into


the names or terms comprising a set or system
set or system of names or terms, as those used in a particular science or art, by an individual or community

What is the history of Taxonomy and Nomenclature?

Until the 18th century many scientist were confused by the conflicting names that existed for certain plant species. Local scientists would have one name for common plants and would use those names to talk to scientists from another area and then find out

Binomial Nomenclature

- a two word descriptor given to identify a species
-Used by Linnaeus to such a degree that he's given credit for it even though he did not create the system

Taxonomic Hierarchy

- a system of classifying and naming species so that you can understand and establish relatedness between species or even larger groupings.

What basic levels is the taxonomic hierarchy broken up into?

-Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species
-To identify an organism you use the levels Genus and Species. You underline or italicize them. Genus has a capital letter and goes first and then species is lowercase and is second.
Ex. Odocoileu

How many kingdoms are there?

1. Linnaeus divided all life into two kingdoms: Plantae and Animalia.
2. Some have used a 3-kingdom hierarchy: Plantae, Animalia, and Fungi.
3. Currently, the most commonly used hierarchy includes 5 kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia

What are domains and when are they used?

They are the level above Kingdom and they include Bacteria and Archaea They are used instead of Monera and then use the other four groups to describe all the rest (included in the domain Eukarya).

What is an example of the Taxonomic Hierarchy?

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Note, the descriptions for each level are not complete for that given level (i.e., hair and mammary glands are not all that go into identifying mammals), but are provided for some descriptive guidance.
1. Kingdo


Evolutionary independent group. All the mutations, selections, and drifts act on the group independently of what's happening in other groups. (??Gene flow between groups cause allele frequencies to be the same. If gene flow stops then mutation, selection,

What are the three criteria to designate species?

Biological, Morphological, and Phylogenetic species concepts.

Biological species concept

If two populations don't interbreed in nature, or if they do and their offspring isn't viable then they are separate species.
-The two ways in which groups don't form viable offspring are Prezygotic isolation and Postzygotic isolation.

Prezygotic Isolation

The prevention of two individuals from mating for different reasons (Ex. Lightening bugs)
i. temporal- breeding at different times
ii. habitat- breed in different habitats
iii. behavioral - courtship displays differ
iv. gametic barrier - eggs and sperm ar

Postzygotic Isolation

- two individuals mating but then their offspring do not survive or they can not reproduce (Ex. Horse+donkey=sad sexless mule}
i. hybrid viability - offspring die as embryos
ii. hybrid sterility - offspring mature, but are sterile

Morphospecies Concept

Differences between groups in size shape, and sometimes behavior or other morphological features indicate that the two groups are different species
-In order to be this different the two populations must have been apart and separated long enough to become

Phylogenetic Species Concept

- The reconstruction of the evolutionary history of populations. Takes into account a variety of traits specific to the population in order to establish relatedness between groups. Species are determined by distinctions made between them, whether behavior

In what regard is the Biological Species Concept problematic?

- When distinguishing species in the fossil record and for organisms whose populations do not overlap (they cannot interbreed).

Why do problems arise in the Morphospecies Concept?

- Because traits are often subjective. Differences seen between groups of organisms may represent variation within the species, the effects of genetic drift, mutations, and/or natural selection.

Phylogenetic Tree

-Phylogenetic analysis results are shown in this
-A branching diagram that shows relatedness and distinction among groups
-It includes branches, nodes, and terminal nodes


-On a phylogenetic tree and represent a population through time


-Are where branches come together
-Are points in time when an ancestral group splits into 2 or more different descendant groups

Terminal Nodes

-represent a group (species, or larger) - living or extinct

What two methods are used to perform phylogenetic analyses?

Phenetics and Cladistics


the grouping of species by similar traits. It doesn't matter whether those traits are ancestral or recently derived.


-The grouping of species by shared, recently derived characteristics only
-Within it species can be sorted into monophyletic or paraphyletic groups
-This idea is mostly based on the idea that species with recently evolved traits are likely closely related

Monophyletic group

-An ancestor and all its descendants

Paraphyletic group

-An ancestor but not all of its descendants.
-This is not a very useful tool in studying phylogenies,
- is mostly used when clarifying the loss of evolved traits and convergence.

What are some problems with the Cladistics system?

-We could end up with a large number of species like each individual is one because we track all genetic differences between almost all populations within a species (and even individuals in pop)
-If you don't choose the correct suite of traits to compare,


-traits are similar due to a shared ancestry


traits are similar due to other reasons than common ancestry.

Convergent Evolution

the independent evolution of similar traits in distantly related organisms, where the common ancestor does not have the trait. (most common cause of homoplasy)


- the most likely explanation or pattern is the one that implies the least amount of change (i.e., the simplest).
- the simplest explanation or pattern is probably the right one.

Examples of phylogenetic in textbook

-Golden-winged vs. Blue-winged Warbler
-Dusky Seaside Sparrow on pp. 492-493

What happens if the newly formed species come back into contact?

Reinforcement of species, Hybrid zones, and New species through hybridization

Reinforcement of species

If populations can interbreed and produce young, and the hybrids have suppressed fitness (sterile or lowered fitness) then selection would favor those that don't interbreed, and then further separation will occur

Hybrid Zones

Areas where 2 populations overlap and hybrids exist. May be small or large, short-lived or long-lived

New species through hybridization

Hybrids contain a unique blend of alleles from parents and therefore different characteristics. If these traits can be selected for, then the genes are passed on to the next generation. A new species may be created as a result.

How are new species created from old species?

-A process that is based on isolation of one or more groups from an ancestral group, and the divergence between the new and ancestral group.
-Speciation occurs when subgroups are isolated (reproductively) and divergence occurs during this separation. The

Allopatric speciation

-Occurs when subpopulations are separated by some physical barrier. The two subpopulations remain reproductively isolated (no gene flow) and, over time, diverge from each other (due to genetic drift, accumulation of mutations, or by natural selection diff


- When a group emigrates from an area, and they are isolated long enough to have allele changes that eventually lead to a new species being created.


- When a population is divided by a change in the geologic landscape. If the sub populations remain separated long enough, allele frequencies will change enough to call them separate species.

Sympatric Speciation

- occurs when new species are created in areas where there is no physical barrier between subpopulations, meaning they could interbreed. Traditionally, scientists thought you couldn't get sympatric speciation because gene flow between groups in a larger p

Helpful videos for lecture 1 -- Species and speciation

Taxonomy and Classification-
Three Domains o

Population Ecology

How and why population size change over time and the effects it has on the environment.
Genetic change in a population can explain how new populations get started or get larger/smaller.
However there are reasons for this besides genetic change and even wi

Why do we study Population Ecology?

It helps in understanding how, and why populations change.
Example. Knowing how the populations of food plants grow helps us better plant our farms. Also knowing what makes insect population size change helps us maintain local ecosystems that keep our wat

What do conservation ecologists do in regards to population ecology?

They try to figure out how many individuals there are in a population and why the population is either growing or declining.
They mainly answer questions by keeping track of different elements within a population like numbers, ages, sex ratio, etc. They s

What is exponential growth and the factors that are needed for it to happen?

When a population of organisms is living in an unlimited environment, with unlimited resources, and unlimited space.
increases rapidly over short amount of time
When graphed you get a curve that starts off with a relatively slow build that increases quick

What is the exponential growth equation and what do the parts represent?

B= individuals that have the probability of dividing/giving birth (increases pop)
D= Individuals that have the probability of dying. (decreases pop)
R= Rate of growth.
N= Population size
Explain the equation�Rate of growth per individual (per c

Logistic or Sigmoid growth

It involves three stages 1. Initial exponential growth 2. Decelerating growth rates 3. Fluctuations around some average population size called the carrying capacity of the environment or K
Example to consider: Sheep of South Australia

What is the logistic growth equation and what does each part represent?

N= The current population size
K= the highest value that N can take or the carrying capacity of the environment
R= r here is relative unlike being r-max in the exponential equation (idk what the f*ck that means) It's how an individual

What does the exponential growth equation mean? Describe it in terms of the other variables listed.

For example, the above exponential growth equation can be translated as: the change in population size per change in time (rate of growth) equals the rate of population growth for the individual multiplied by the number of individuals in the population.

Which model is closer to predicting real populations and their changes exponential or logistic? Why?

The logistic model does because the exponential model doesn't take into account the limit that resources place on the population

Carrying Capacity (K)

- The point at which the population size is in equilibrium with resources. (Pop and environment together)
-The number of individuals within a species that the environment can support. (Environment)
- The number of individuals that can survive within a pop

What will happen in each of these scenarios
1. If N > K:
2. If N < K:
3. If N = K:

1. the population will decrease because the environment can't handle that large of a population
2. the population will increase because there will be enough resources to sustain a larger population
3. the population will stay the same because it's reached


The study of the factors that determine the size and structure of a population overtime. This includes age classes, sex ratio, rates of immigration and emigration, survivorship, mortality, and fecundity of a population.
- This is done in an effort to bett

Life Table

When created and analyzed this can best help to understand population change.
- summarize that probability that an individual age class will survive and reproduce in any given year over the individual's lifetime.
- Keep track of cohorts (individuals born

Variables in a life table

X - the year in consideration. Or age class which is for organisms like bacteria that don't count their ages in years or have too many years with too little change like in humans. Survival is mostly not threatened so separate into infancy, childhood, earl

Life Tables and Survivorship

-Survivorship is key to understanding life tables, and, as a result, the changes in a population over time.
-For example, if individuals in a particular species have several thousand offspring, you would believe that the environment would be overrun in a

Survivorship Curve

-made for survivorship data
-For population biologists and conservationists survivorship curves pinpoint when in an organism's life it is most susceptible to dying. As a result, steps can be taken to ensure population survival if necessary.
-in conjunctio

Type 1 Survivorship Curve

having a large percentage of survivors throughout much of the individual's life time. Then followed by a rapid decline in individuals within cohort. So survivor and then all die around similar age. Senior citizens in humans die.
Ex. Humans, Elephants, and

Type 2 Survivorship Curve

- a relatively constant decline in survivorship throughout life of the species. Ex. Birds, and many perennial plants.

Type 3 Survivorship Curve

-survivorship curve- having a low survivorship (high mortality) early in the life of the individual followed by a fairly high survivorship for the remainder of life. Ex. Many annual plants and invertebrates


The number of offspring an individual can have in its lifetime. Basically the same thing as fitness but this represents an actual value where fitness is more relative.
- refers to the number of female offspring a female can have in her lifetime, since the

How do you calculate net reproductive rate of any one age-class?

-Multiply survivorship X fecundity. When these numbers are added across all age classes you get a net reproductive rate for the entire population (ignoring immigration and emigration!)
If the sum is
1. <1.0 the population is getting smaller,
2. = 1 stayin

Life History Traits

- How an organism distributes energy and effort into the processes of growing, reproducing, and maintaining its body. The cost of reproduction is higher mortality. Or the more offspring you have the short your life is.
- All organisms are selected for max

Life History Trade-off

-The balancing act between living and growing and reproducing. It's a trade-off because they can't occur at the same time.
- Those individuals (populations and species too) with high fecundity, generally have low survivorship (example: mustard plant). Low

Helpful videos for lecture notes 2: Population Ecology

Population Ecology-
Logistic Growth-
Exponential Growth-
More ....

Competition 1

is pervasive in nature and is an important driving force in natural selection. Competition can happen both within and between species, and this allows for certain traits to be better competitors. Those individuals that out-compete others have greater fitn

Interactions between individuals in terms of cost and benefits

-With interactions between individuals you must keep track of processes and results in terms of cost and benefits.
-Benefits are (+) and those who sustain a cost are (-). When an individual doesn't experience a cost or benefit it's considered (0).
-In mod

Competition 2

- individuals interacting where both sustain some cost (or potential cost) It's considered a -/- interaction.
-Most people believe on member benefits from interaction and the other has a cost (+/-) but this is only the ultimate payoff or the reason for co

What two kinds of competition are there?

intraspecific and interspecific

Which kind of competition is more costly to an individual?

-Intraspecific competition is more costly because it occurs between individuals with identical requirements. For interspecific competition its competition that includes only a small part of either ones total requirements for survival.
-Those that believe

Intraspecific competition

Competition between individuals within a species.
- This competition for some limited resource or many different resources casues the population growth to slow and fluctuate around K. The effect was then built into the logistic model of population growth.

General Adaption Syndrome (GAS)

-a physicological-based response system where short-term gains of survival in high population density situations are paired with long-term costs in immunity and reproduction
Ex. The gypsy Moth Explosion

The Gypsy Moth Explosion example

-it's an example of General Adaption Syndrome and Intraspecific competition
a. In the summer of 2012, much of the NE U.S. saw a significant increase in the gypsy moth (Porthetria dispar). As the summer wore on, the larvae (caterpillars) pupated; the hatch

Possible outcome of intraspecific competition

-superior competitors will have greater fitness than lesser competitors will. This "fine tuning" of a species trait (the better ability of individuals to gain resources) can cause an eventual specialization among the species (the species can only use this


-the environmental factors that influence the growth, survival, and reproduction of a species.
-a species niche consist of all the factors necessary for its existence-when where how a species makes its living.
-within interspecific competition the importa

Interspecific competition

-competition between individuals of different species for the same resource. Can lead to an Evolutionary Arms race.

Evolutionary Arms Race

-where the adaptations of one species are overcome by the selection for traits within another species. It's counter by the evolution of new traits in the first to overcome adaptations by second. Ex. A predator adapts a trait to help eat prey and the prey

Competitive Exclusion Principle

-that two species with identical niches can't coexist in that niche indefinitely
--The cost(in the competition and loss of potential resources) is great enough that if 2 species have identical niches, the better competition one will exclude the lesser com

N-dimensional hypervolume

- how Hutchinson defined the niche.
-This is where n equals the number of environmental factors that are important to the survival and reproduction of the species. This gives the niche a multidimensional definition and it has more than one or two environm

Fundamental Niche

- the accumulated factors permitting a species to survive and reproduce.
-It's Hutcherson's hypervolume.
-The physical conditions under which a species might live, in the absence of negative interactions with other species

Realized Niche

-more restricted conditions
-Interactions such as competition may restrict the area where the species lives.
-It's the actual niche of a species that is restricted through its interactions (like competition, predation, disease, and others) with other spec

Resource Partitioning

-the differentiation of niches, both in space and time that enables similar species to coexist in a community
- There are several different requirements in which species can compete. One can look at a series of comparisons among many species across these

Resource Segregation

one difference between species
i. Example: Lack's passerines: Among passerines (small perching birds) sharing fairly similar lifestyles, most segregation takes place by habitat preference, followed by (in decreasing order) body size, feeding habit, geogra

What two categories do competition mechanisms fall into?

Scramble and interference

Scramble or exploitative competition

-where the competing individuals target the resource, and there may be no direct interaction between the two.

Interference competition

- where individuals target the competitor, and not necessarily the resource.

which type of competition is it: scramble or interference?
a. Dung beetles
b. Dung beetles
c. Barnacles
d. Hyenas vs. scavengers
e. Salvia sp. vs. other plants.

I'm too lazy to write answers here. look in notes or google it. I don't care.

Exploitative Relationship

- summarized by a +/- designated relationship
-the interaction increases the fitness of one individual while reducing the fitness of the other.
Examples: herbivore (increase) and plant (reduce) // predator (increase) and prey (decrease) // parasite (incre


is three frequently group together exploitative relationships. They are herbivory, parasitism, and predation.

Case study of moose on island royale

Population graphs of the moose and wolves follow a specific pattern. The two graphs look similar, but the wolf graph occurs out of phase with that of the moose. This pattern is similar to that predicted by the Lotka-Volterra Model of Predator-Prey Interac

Herbivory consumption

-the consumption of plant material by an animal that will either reduce the fitness of the plant (+/-) or act to increase the fitness of the plant (+/+).
-The latter is known as mutualism involves eating fruit and seeds, or nectar and pollen.

Carnivory consumption

killing and consumption of other animals. The prey may be partially or entirely consumed.
-It's rare to see predation because predators will only hunt and eat when certain they will not be pursued by animals themselves.
-Animals represent a higher quality

Specializations for carnivory consumptions

those required for catching, subduing, and killing pretty such as claws and talons, refined sense and large brains, specialized teeth, venom glands, and extreme morphological specializations for speed and prey capture like leaping and grasping limbs

Search Image

used by predators when pursuing prey.
-visual nearby and chemical focus on the most abundant/rewarding prey type while ignoring nearby good pretty for at least as long as the focal prey is the most economical pursue)
-makes predator more successful at fin


one form of consumption that doesn't typically lead to death of an individual.
- The relationship where one individual, the parasite, lives in (endoparasite) or on (ectorparasite) another organism which is the host.
- Host is not usually killed but does s


- like parasites but kill the host in the end. Most prevalent of parasitoids come in the form of insects that lay their eggs in the bodies of other insects, and parasitoid larvae consume their host as they grow and develop.

Are prey as active as their predators in avoidance and defenses against the predators pursuit?

- yes their lives depend on their success in avoiding predators they have evolved ways to avoid being eaten.

Standing (constitutive) defenses

permanently present within the prey regardless if predator is present or not.

inducible defenses

appear as a result of predator pressure whether directly (herbivore eating plant) or indirectly (presence in environment)

plant defenses

15-70 percent of all terrestrial plants eating by herbivore annually. Not 100 because of plant defenses. There are mechanical and chemical defenses.

Plant Mechanical Defenses

-Tough epidermis: of seed shells; bark on branches and trunks
-Entanglement devices: thick waxy cuticle and plant hair on leaves and stems entangles and deters small herbivores
- Piercing devices
-Cutting edges in "cutgrass", a wetland species (silica) -S

Plant Chemical Defenses

known as secondary metabolics
-derivatives of existing plant metabolism that deter herbivory.
- evolved to specifically deter the common herbivores of plant populations and may not affect others that didn't coevolve with plant
-All spices used in cook

Animal mechanical defenses

-Retaliation: Porcupine quills, sting ray spine, Zebra kick
-Startling behavior: Under wing of some moths with hind wing eye spots looking like owl face
-Deflection of attack to non-vital area: 4-eyed butterfly fish (eyespots on tail)
-Large size: elephan

Animal chemical defenses

-Nausea induction: skunk scent, hydrogen cyanide production by lady bugs
Ex. Monarch butterfly.

Host defenses

Consider the Nasonia vitripennis case study.

Countering adaptations of herbivores

-Selection of certain plant parts that may have fewer defense mechanisms.
Example gray squirrels eating acorns.
-tough tongue, mouth and gut, as with cactus-eating tortoises & wood rats, and giraffe who eat the prickly underside and outer crown leaves of

Countering chemical defenses

Cellulase evolution and Alkaline pH:

Cellulase evolution

Cellulase evolution: many bacteria, protists and fungi (decomposers of plant products) have evolved the enzyme cellulase to breakdown cellulose (a defense product) into highly utilizable simple sugars (glucose).

Alkaline pH

Ex. Gypsy moth caterpillars have an alkaline (high pH) stomach, which keeps tannins from binding to protein and making the protein unavailable to the herbivore. Consequently, Gypsy moths eat oak leaves and hemlock bark, both high in tannins, and suffer no

Carnivores overcoming prey mobility

-Social carnivory (lions)
-Pursuit: short distance (cats) or long distance (wolves) dichotomy of adaptations
-Luring (angler fish lure and snapping turtle tongue)
-Sit and wait (praying mantis) and surprise pounce/grasp/bite


-a relationship where both individuals benefit from the interaction (+/+)
WARNING- it benefits both individuals but they are not willingly generous individuals. Each has evolved to provide something to the other only because of the benefit to themselves.


similar but not the same as mutualism.
-Partners in relationship in constant contact.
-Ex. Lichens are a symbiotic relationship of algae and fungi. They live together to form a sing organism. A plant and pollinator might be one around the pollination even


-a relationship where one individual benefits from the interaction and the other sees no benefit or cost (+/0). One takes advantage of existing behavior of another without affecting that individual
Examples: Burdocks,
-Frequently, scientist

Facultative mutualism

-where the individuals in the relationship can exist without their mutualistic partner.
Example: Honeyguides in Africa

Obligate mutualism

-where the individuals in the partnership are so dependent on the relationship that they cannot survive without it.
Example: Cellulose-digesting bacteria.


-may literally mean to live, or it may refer to the ability to pass genes onto the next generation (i.e., reproduce).

Examples of mutualism

2. Ants on Acacia Trees
3. Coral Reefs
4. Mycorrhizae
5. Frugivory
6. Rhizobium Nitrogen Fixation
---look up in notes what they do specifically---