Bio 2 Chapter 12

Blood, a type of ________, is a complex mixture of what three things?

Connective tissue; Cells, fluid, and chemicals

What are the functions of blood?

It transports substances and maintains a stable environment

The blood includes what three types of cells?

Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

A blood _________ is normally ____ cells and ____ plasma.

Hematocrit; 45%; 55%

A red blood cell

erythrocyte

Red blood cells are biconcave disks that contain one-third oxygen-carrying ___________ by volume.

Hemoglobin

When oxygen combines with hemoglobin bright red ________ results.

Oxyhemoglobin

Deoxygenated blood (____________) is darker.

Deoxyhemoglobin

Red blood cells discard their ________ during development so they cannot reproduce or produce proteins.

Nucleus

Red blood cell production occurs in the red _______ after birth.

Bone marrow

The average life span of a red blood cell is _______.

120 days

The total number of red blood cells remains relatively constant due to a _______ feedback mechanism utilizing the hormone _______ which is released from the kidneys and liver in response to the detection of low ______ levels.

Negative; Erythropoietin; Oxygen

Vitamins ______ and ______ are needed for DNA synthesis, so they are necessary for the reproduction of all body cells, especially in hematopoietic tissue.

B12; Folic acid

______ is needed for hemoglobin synthesis.

Iron

A deficiency in red blood cells or quantity of hemoglobin results in a disorder called _________.

Anemia

With age, red blood cells become increasingly fragile and are damaged by passing through ________.

Capillaries

Macrophages in the _______ and _______ phagocytize damaged red blood cells.

Liver; Spleen

Hemoglobin from the decomposed red blood cells is converted into _______ and _______.

Heme; Globin

What happens to the heme and iron?

They are recycled back to be incorporated into new red blood cells

White blood cells

Leukocyte

White blood cells are formed from _________ in response to hormones when needed.

hemocytoblasts

Name the five types of leukocytes

Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes

What is the basic function of the white blood cells?

Protection (by defending against disease)

A ___differential_________ white blood cell count can help pinpoint the nature of an illness, indicating whether it is caused by bacteria or viruses.

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_____leukocytosis______ occurs after an infection when excess numbers of leukocytes are present.

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_____leukopenia_____ (too few WBC's) occurs from a variety of conditions, including AIDS.

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Why is this group called granulocytes? Granules are observed in their cytoplasm when stained with certain stains

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What is neutrophils functions function? Phagocytize bacteria, fungi, and some viruses

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What does diapedesis mean? Squeezing between cells in blood vessel walls

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What are eosinophils functions? Help to control allergic reactions, defend against certain parasites

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Basophils produce chemicals, what are the functions of these chemicals? Increase blood flow to damaged tissues

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How do they help fight pathogens? Promote inflammation responses

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Why are they called agranulocytes? They lack the characteristic cytoplasmic granules

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What is the function of the monocytes? Phagocytize bacteria and cellular debris

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What is lymphocytes function? Involved in immunity responses by producing antibodies

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platelets = thrombocytes:

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Blood platelets are fragments of big cells called ___megakaryocytes_______.

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Platelets help repair damaged blood vessels by adhering____ to their broken edges.

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Plasma is the clear, straw-colored fluid portion of the blood.

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Plasma is mostly ___water_____ but contains a variety of substances.

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What are plasma's functions? Transport of nutrients and gases, regulates fluid and electrolyte balance, maintains acid base balance

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What are the 4 types of plasma proteins?

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albumin: maintain the correct osmotic pressure of the plasma

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globulin: transport of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins, some are a type of antibody

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clotting proteins: play an important role in blood clotting process

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hormones: Regulate and control physiological function

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What are the two most important blood gases? Oxygen and carbon dioxide

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Types of lipoproteins include HDL, LDL

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Hemostasis refers to the ___stoppage of bleeding___________________________________

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Following injury to a vessel, three steps occur in hemostasis: blood vessel spasm, platelet plug formation, and blood coagulation

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trauma ----> Cutting a blood vessel causes the muscle in its walls to contract in a reflex, or engage in

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_vasospasm_______ This reflex lasts only a few minutes

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spasm of injured vessel ----> platelet plug ----> Platelets stick to the exposed edges of __damaged__ blood vessels,

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forming a _net___ with spiny processes protruding from their membranes. A platelet plug is most effective
on a small vessel.
Platelets release a factor leading to the third step of hemostasis.

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What is hemophilia? Abnormal bleeding because blood fails to clot normally

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Clumping of red blood cells following transfusion is called __agglutination________________________.

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This clumping is due to the interaction of proteins on the surfaces of red blood cells called __antigens__ with
certain proteins called _antibodies___ carried in the plasma.

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blood types: A, B, AB, O:

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What is an antigen? Special proteins found on the surface of cells

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What is an antibody? Special protein in the blood plasma that interact with specific antigen

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type A has what type of antigens and antibodies? A type antigens and anti-B antibodies

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type B has ..... B-type antigens and anti-A antibodies

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type AB has .... Both A-type and B-type antigens and neither type of antibodies

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Type O has .... Neither type of antigen but both types of blood antibodies

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The Rh factor was named after the __rhesus______ monkey.

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If the Rh factor surface protein is present on red blood cells, the blood is Rh __positive_______; if not, it
is Rh __negative______.

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There are no corresponding antibodies in the plasma unless a person with Rh-negative blood is transfused with Rh-
positive blood; the person will then develop antibodies for the Rh factor.

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