BIOL 224 CH 23 Respiratory

� what does the term ventilation refer to

(movement of air into and out of lungs, air moves from higher pressure to lower pressure are, P is inversely related to V )

� what is internal respiration

(gas exchange between the blood and tissues)

� what is external respiration

(gas exchange between air in lungs and blood)

� what is the function of the nasal septum

Divides nasal cavity into right and left parts.

� what is the function of the nose

(passageway of air, cleans the air, humidifies, warms air, smell, resonating chambers for speech)

� when people cry, what happens to their tears

They are carried through lacrimal sac to nasolacrimal duct, which enter nasal cavity

� what's the passage way of an air molecule going through the nose

nasal cavity

� what structure serves as a passageway, both for food AND air

(pharynx)

� which is the largest of the laryngeal cartilage

Unpaired Thyroid cartilage

� what covers the larynx during swallowing

Epiglottis

� what structures vibrate to produce sound

Vocal folds

� what type of cartilage does the trachea have and why

Hyaline cartilage; it supports the anterior and lateral sides of the trachea. Carina initiates cough.

� what structures are included in the respiratory zone of the tracheal bronchial tree

Lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchiols.

� when people aspirate foreign objects, which lung does it go to and why

Right main bronchus. Because it's larger and more in line with trachea

� what is the sequence for the passageway of air

Pharynx - larynx - trachea - Bronchi

� where does gas exchange take place

(alveoli) Respiratory membrane of respiratory zone

� what type of epithelia is found in the alveoli

Simple squamous epithelium

� if a surgeon does surgical removal of the lung, what pattern would he follow

(segmental, bronchopulmonary segments, lobules)

� how many lobes are in the right lung

(three)

� how many lobes are in the left lung

(two)

� which muscles increase the volume of the thorax during a normal inhalation

SCM, Scalenes, Pec minor, external intercostals, diaphragm

� how does the diaphragm increase the superior/inferior dimensions of the thoracic cavity

Through the central tendon

� where do we find the pleural cavity

(in-between the visceral and parietal pleura)

� when does alveolar volume increase

When resistance to flow decreases

� what is required for the flow of air into or out of the lungs

A pressure gradient established between atmosphere and alveoli

� what should the alveolar pressure be during expiration

Greater than the atmospheric pressure

� what is the function of surfactant

( maintains surface tension)

� what happens during inspiration

Thoracic volume increases

� what is pneumothorax

(opening between pleural cavity and AIR that causes a loss of pleural pressure)

� what is residual volume

(volume of air remaining in respiratory passages and lungs after the most forceful expiration)

� what is alveolar ventilation

Boyle's law. P=k/V. If barometric pressure is greater than alveolar pressure, then air flow into the alveoli.

� what is the partial pressure of N if it is 75% of the atmosheric air pressure

570

� what means of transport do we have exchange of gases at the respiratory membrane

diffusion

� what increases the rate of gas exchange across the respiratory membrane

Type I pneumocytes . Increased ventilation or increased pulmonary capillary blood flow increases gas exchange

� what would happen if someone had an asthmatic attack

Lower than normal compliance

� where is PO2 the highest

...

� what is PO2 the lowest

...

� why does the O2 diffuse from the alveolus to the pulmonary capillary occur

(greater pressure in alveoli than in the capillary so it flows from high P to low P)

� in what areas does the PO2 progressively decrease

(lungs to various places)

� how is oxygen transported in the blood

(with hemoglobin?)

� what happens with the O2/hb dissociation curve during exercise

(shifts to the right,

� what does Bohr effect refer to

(effects of pH to facilitate the dissociation of O2/hb)

� how is CO2 transported in the blood

...

� if the levels of 2-3-BPG increased, what does hemoglobin do

(helps hb release O2 into the tissues)

� if you increase temperature what happens to the curve

(shifts to the right)

� if hb has oxygen attached to it, what is it called

(oxyhemoglobin)

� if it is oxyhemoglobin, how is its affinity to O2

(decreased, bc it is already full and it will not bind more)

� what is normal pH for blood

(7.35-7.45)

� how does CO affect RBC

...

� in what form in CO2 transported in the blood

(in the form of bicarb ions)

� if Hemoglobin has released its O2, how does it bind to CO2

(more easily)

� what is chloride used for in the cell membrane

(chloride shift, cl- and bicarb exchange)

� what is the intention

(bicarb would combine w H+ so it can reverse the reaction and have CO2 and H2O )

� what nerve innervates the diaphragm

(phrenic)

� what would a baby holding its breath do

...

� what area in the brain is chemosenstive

(medulla oblongata)

� what happens if the CO2 levels in blood inc

...

� do O2 levels within normal levels of PO2 have effects of regulation of respiration

...

� what is the major regulator of respiration

(plasma concentration of CO2)

� what is the Hering-breuer reflex

(limits the degree of inspiration and prevents overinflation of the lungs)

� what is bronchitis

(inflammation of bronchi)

� what is emphysema

(alveoli collapses, destruction of membrane )

� ARDS-Adult respiratory distress syndrome-caused by

(damaged to respiratory membrane, reduce surfactant, developed after an injurious effect ex. firefighter inhaling fumes)

� pulmonary fibrosis

(tissue replaced with fibrous CT)

� asthma

(constriction of bronchi)

� CO poisoning

(CO binds tighter to Hb than O2)

� SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)-most frequent death for 2 weeks-1 year of age, no exact cause, obstruction of respiratory tract

...

� cystic fibrosis

(hereditary condition, affects the chloride shift, results in hyper secretion of mucus, forms mucus plug, does not mean lung would be fibrous).

� what do smokers get

(emphysema and COPD)

� influenza

(viral infection)

� PNA = pneumonia

(Viral or bacterial, fever, difficulty breathing, edema, chest pain)

� whooping cough

(pertussis-caused by pathogen by bordatella pertussis, destroys cilia on lining of respiratory tract, leads to severe cough, has immunization)

� a disease that is characterized by decreased chloride shift and mucous sec (cystic fibrosis)

...

� if a patient has severe PNA, thickened reps mem , inspire of O2 therapy, have rapid respirations, why do you think this is happening

...

� what portion of the pharynx extends to the middle of the uvula

...