BIOL 224 CH. 19 Blood

What are the functions of blood

1. Transport of gases, nutrients and waste products;
e.g. oxygen
2. Transport of processed molecules; e.g., precursor of
vitamin D from skin to liver then kidneys
3. Transport of regulatory molecules; e.g., hormones
4. Regulation of pH and osmosis (normal

What is plasma and what are formed elements

Plasma is liquid part of blood. It is a pale yellow fluid that consists of about 91% water and 9% other substances. Formed elements are RBC's. White blood cells; platelets

Which plasma protein is most abundant

Albumin; makes ups about 58% of plasma proteins

What are the functions of plasma proteins

Albumins; viscosity, osmotic pressure, buffer, transport fatty acids, free bilirubin, thyroid hormones. Globulins; 38%; Transports lipids, carbohydrates, hormones, ions, antibodies, and complement. Fibrinogen; 4% blood clotting

What is the plasma component that forms fibrin


What is fibrinolysis

Dissolving a clot. Involves the activity of plasmin, an enzyme that hydrolyzes fibrin

What are thrombocytes

Platelets; minute fragments of cells consisting of a small amount of cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane

What causes decreased hematopoiesis


What is the difference from hematopoiesis and hemostasis

Hemostasis prevents blood from leaking from blood vessel

How would you describe a mature erythrocyte

Non-nucleated. Larger surface area, and hemoglobin attached

What would happen if body did not make enzyme carbonic anhydrase

CO2 and water would not catalyze. This enzyme plays a major role in the transport of CO2

What does each hemoglobin molecule contain

4 polypeptide chains and 4 heme groups

What is the difference between carboxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, carbaminohemoglobin

Oxy: Oxygenated form; can transport 1 billion molecules of oxygen. Deoxy: no oxygen; darker red. Carbamino: carbon dioxide attached to globin molecule. Carboxy: Carbon minoxide binding with iron of hemeglobin to form this compound; results in inhibition o

What is a reticulocyte

Immature red blood cells

What is required for erythropoiesis

Approx. 4 days. Cell division requires B12 and folate, hemoglobin production requires iron. RBC production is stimulated by low blood oxygen levels.

What would happen if you traveled to a place of high altitude

You would produce more RBC. Secondary erythrocytosis.

Where is erythropoietin secreted

Produced mostly by the kidneys

What happens when defective erythrocytes are broken down

1. Broken down by macrophages into heme and globin chains. 2. Globin broken down to individual amino acids and metabolized or reused. 3. Heme releases iron, heme then converted to biliverdin, then to bilirubin. 4. Iron transported to other tissues or back

What is transported by transferrin


If your patients skin appears to be jaundice what is the cause

Build up of bile pigments. Caused by increased destruction of RBC's; damage by toxins, genetic defects in RBC plasma membranes, Infections and immune reactions. Other causes are dysfunction or destruction of liver tissue and blockage of duct system that d

Which cells are agranulocytes

White blood cells that appear to have no granules when viewed in a light microscope; they have granules, but are so small they can't be seen. Two types are Lymphocytes and Monocytes. They have nuclei that are not lobed.

What are lymphocytes

Comprise 20-25%. Smallest WBC. Originate in bone marrow, but migrate through blood to lymphatic tissue where they proliferate. Majority is in lymphatic tissue. B cells and T cells

What is chemotaxis

White blood cells can detect small differences in chemotactic factor concentration and move from areas of lower chemotactic factor concentration to areas of higher concentration.

What is diapedesis

Cells become thin and elongated and slip between or through the cells of blood vessel walls

Which are the most numerous WBC

Neutrophils Neutrophils

What protein forms a bridge between the vessel wall collagen and the platelet receptors

Von Willebrand Factor

How does aspirin inhibit platelet plug formation

By inhibiting prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis, reducing platelet activation.

Steps in Platelet plug formation

1. Platelet adhesion 2. Platelet release reaction 3. platelet aggregation

What is the role of megakaryoblasts

Give rise to platelets

In the intrinsic pathway what does the damaged tissue release

Collagen. When factor XII which is in the blood, comes in contact with the damaged tissue (collagen), it is activated, stimulating factor XI > Factor IX> joins factor VIII, platelet phosophlipids, and CA2+ to activate factor X. Factor X is the beginning o

What must come into contact with collagen to start the intrinsic pathway

Factor XII

Extrinsic pathway

Damaged tissue release thromboplastin aka tissue factor (TF) or factor III > in the presence of Ca2+ TF forms complex with factor VII that activates factor X > beginning common pathway

Common pathway

On surface of platelets, activated factor X, V, platelet phosopholipids and Ca2+ combine to form prothrombinase > which converts prothrombin to the enzyme thrombin. Thrombin converts fibrinogen to insoluable protein fibrin > forms the fibrous network of t

Terminal phase after factor X

Common pathway

What ion is required for coagulation


What is Coumadin and warfarin

Anticoagulants; suppresses the liver's roduction of Vit K dependent clotting factors (II, VII, IX and X)

What would an increased amount of heparin in the blood do

Inactivate thrombin; reduce blood clots

What is the function of plasmin

An enzyme that hydrolyzes fibrin; fibrinolysis. Dissolves clots

What is a thrombus and what is an embolus

Thrombus is a blot clot that forms in a blood vessel and stays there. Embolus is if a thrombus breaks loose and begins to float through the circulation.

What vitamin is necessary to produce clotting factors in the liver

Vitamin K

What is erythrocytosis

An overabundance of RBC's

What is HDN (erythroblastosis fetalis)

Hemolytic disease of the newborn. If Rh negative mother has Rh positive fetus, and the blood crosses the placenta, the mother produces anti-Rh antibodies which can cross the placenta and affect the fetus. Usually doesn't affect the first pregnancy.

What is hemophilia

Genetic disorder in which clotting is abnormal or absent. Results from deficiency or dysfunction of clotting factor - usually occurs in males.

What is leukemia

Cancer of the red bone marrow - overabundance of WBC's but are abnormal and lack immunological functions.

What is anemia

Deficiency of hemoglobin in the blood.

What is aplastic anemia

Caused by an inability of red bone marrow to produce RBC's, usually as a result of damage to stem cells after exposure to certain drugs, chemicals or radiation.

What is hemolytic anemia

RBC's rupture or are destroyed at an excessive rate; caused by inherited defects, exposure to certain drugs or snake venom, response to artificial heart valve, autoimmune disease, and HDN

What is pernicious anemia

Secondary folate-deficiency anemia caused by inadequate amount of vitamin b12, which is important for folate synthesis

What is hemorrhagic anemia

Results from blood loss due to trauma, ulcers, or excessive menstrual bleeding

What is vascular spasm

The immediate or temporary constriction of a blood vessel that results when smooth muscle within the wall of the vessel contracts

What is vasodilation

Blood vessel constriction

An increase in monocytes is often a sign of what

Chronic infection