Campbell biology chapter 33

Invertebrates

Animals without a backbone

Animals in the phylum Porifera

sponges

Sponges are

sedentary and live in marine waters or fresh water

Filter feeders are

animals that capture food particles suspended in the water that passes through their body

The body cavity that sponges have

spongocoel

Opening at the top of sponges

Osculum

Choanocytes

Flagellated collar cells that generate water current through the sponge and ingest suspended food

Mesohyl

A gelatinous noncellular layer between two cell layers

Amoebocytes

found in the mesohyl and play roles in digestion and structure

Hermaphrodites

each individual functions as both male and female

Examples of cnidarians

Jellies, corals, and hydras

Body plan of cnidarians

gastrovascular cavity

Gastrovascular cavity

single opening that functions as a mouth and an anus

Two variations of the body plan

polyp and medusa

Polyp

Hydra, sessile on the aboral end.

Medusa

Jellies, bell shaped bodies with a mouth on the underside

Cnidarians are carnivores that use what to capture prey

tentacles

Cnidocyte

unique cells that function in defense and capture of prey

Nematocysts

specialized organelles within cnidocytes that eject a stinging thread

Medusozoans

All cnidarians that produce a medusa

Examples of Medsozoans

Scyphozoans(jellies), Cubozoans(box jellies), and hydrozoans

Hydras reproduce by

budding

Anothozoans only occur as

polyps

Corals often form symbioses with algae and secrete a hard

exoskeleton

the clade bilateria contains (3)

Lophotrocozoa, ecdysozoa, and deuterostomia

T OR F Flatworms are acoelomates

true

What regulates the osmotic balance in flatworms

protnephridia

What are the best-known rabditphorans

planarians

planarians use _____ to see

light sensitive eyespots

Planarian anatomy

Two different types of rhabditophorans

trematodes and tapeworms

trematodes

parasite that spend most of their life in snails. they have alternating sexual and asexual stages

tapeworms

parasites of vertebrates that lack a digestive system. absorb nutrients from the host's intestine

the tapeworms units that contain sex organs

proglottids

Rotifers

tiny animals that inhabit fresh water, the ocean, and damp soil

A digestive tube with a separate mouth and anus that lies within a fluid filled pseudocoelom

Alimnetary canal

The process where females produce offspring from unfertilized eggs

parthenogenesis

Sessile colonial animals that superficially resemble plants

ectoprocts

Animals that superficially resemble clams and molluscs

Brachiopods

Phylum mollusca contains what animals

Snails, slugs, oysters, clams, octopuses, and squids.

What are the three main body parts of molluscs

Muscular foot, visceral mass, and a mantle

Many molluscs have two other body parts

Mantle cavity and radula

The gonads of molluscs are located where

visceral mass

Four major classes of molluscs

Polyplacophora, gastropoda, bivalvia, and cephalopoda.

Chitons

oval shaped marine animals encased in armor

Gastropods

Mostly snails and slugs, have a spiraled shell, and are herbivores.

Clams mussels and scallops are

Bivalves

Carnivores with beaklike jaws surrounded by tentacles

cephalopods

Coelomates with bodies composed of a series of fused rings

Annelids

Mobile, marine organisms that have parapodia on each body segment

errantians

Clade that contains leeches and earthworms. Usually less mobile than errantians

Sedentarians

Predators of invertebrates and parasites that suck blood

leeches

Tough coat that ecdysozoans are covered by

cuticle

The cuticle is then molted in a process called

ecdysis

Animals found in most aquatic habitats, in the soil, in moist tissues of plants.

Nematodes

Body plan of arthropod

segmented body, hard exoskeleton, jointed appendages

Appendages of arthropods are modified for

walking, feeding, sensory reception, reproduction, and defense.

Open circulatory system

hemolymph is circulated into the spaces surrounding the tissues and organs

3 lineages of arthropods

Chellicerates, myriapods, and pancrustaceans.

Cellicerates

sea spiders, horseshoe crabs, scorpions, ticks, mites, and spiders

myriapods

centipedes and millipedes

pancrustaceans

lobsters and other crustaceans, as well as insects and their relatives

Feeding apendages of cellicerata

chellicerae

Arachnids

spiders, scorpions, ticks, and mites

Gas exchange in spiders occurs where

book lungs

All millipedes and centipedes belong to the clade

myriapoda

Millipedes are herbivores but centipedes are

carnivores

Crustaceans

Sea animals with highly specialized appendages. smaller ones have cuticles larger ones have gills

Shelled cephalopods are called

ammonites

Insects

Animals that live in almost every terrestrial habitat and fresh water.

The process where young insects resemble adults but go through a series of molts until they reach full size

incomplete metamorphosis

Insects that have larval stages known by such names such as maggot, grub, or caterpillar undergo what

complete metamorphosis

insects have separate males and females and reproduce

sexually

Sea stars and sea urchins are what

echinoderms

T OR F chordates are vertebrates

True

The clade deuterostomia consists of what

echinoderms and chordates

deuterstomes share developmental characteristics, what are they

radial cleavage and formation of the anus from the blastopore

Echinoderms

slow moving or sessile marine animals

A network of hydraulic canals branching to tube feet

water vascuclar system

Tube feet

the appendages that help echinoderms with locomotion and feeding

Echinoderms are divided into 5 clades (AOECH)

Asteroidea, ophruoidea, echinoidea, crinoidea, holothuroidea

Asteroidea

sea stars and sea daises

Ophiuroidea

Brittle stars

Echinoidea

sea urchins and sand dollars

Cninoidea

sea lillies and feather stars

Holothuroidea

sea cucumbers