Cross Sectional Anatomy Final

A plane or section dividing the body into equal anterior and posterior halves is classified as:

coronal plane

A plane or section dividing the body into upper and lower parts is classified as:

axial or transverse plane

_________________ is the classification of an ellipsoid joint that allows movement in only one plane.

synovial joint / ginglmus

The hip and shoulder joints would be classified as:

enarthrosis or ball-and-socket joints

Examples of the joint classification _____________ include the sutures of the cranium and sternocostal joints.


The knee joint would be classified as:

ginglymus or hinge joint

Please list in order (from the most radiodense to the least radiodense) the following: fat, white matter, water, bone, and gray matter.

bone, gray matter, white matter, water, fat

In a magnetic resonance image (MRI), a _______-weighted image will have a bright or high signal from fat.


In a ___________ scan, the metabolic activity and radiodensity of tissues are fused to create diagnostic images.


When viewed with ultrasound, the pancreas should be:

hyperechoic (more echoes or brighter than surrounding tissue).

The wrist joint would be classified as:


What bones form the bony nasal septum?

Perpendicular Plate of the ethmoid bone and the Vomer bone

Which of the following nuclei appears to be protruding into the lateral ventricles?
a. Putamen
b. Caudate
c. Globus Pallidus


Describe the location of the insula (inner lobe).

The region of the cerebral cortex located deep within the Sylvian (lateral cortex) or lateral cerebral fissure. Medially, it is separated from the claustrum by the extreme capsule, which carries its fibers to other parts of the brain and spinal cord.

Which of the following describes the venous sinus between the inferior margin of the falx cerebri and the tentorium cerebelli?
a. Superior Sagittal Sinus
b. Sigmoid Sinus
c. Straight Sinus
d. Inferior Sagittal Sinus

Straight Sinus

Describe the fornix.

Fornix is C-shaped and on either side, the arched columns formed by tracts of fibers joining together posteriorly under the splenium of the corpus callosum. Together, they form the roof of the third ventricle.

Which of the following is most laterally situated within the brain?
a. Putamen
b. Caudate
c. Globus Pallidus
d. Thalamus


The ___________________ transmits cerebrospinal fluid between the 3rd and 4th ventricles.
a. Foramen of Magendie
b. Interventricular Foramen
c. Foramen of Luschka
Cerebral (mesencephalic) Aqueduct

Cerebral (mesencephalic) Aqueduct

The vertebral arteries enter the cranial cavity through the foramen:


Which of the following sinuses is located most posteriorly within the skull?
a. Sphenoid
b. Maxillary
c. Ethmoid
d. Frontal


Which of the following is found closest to the clivus?
a. Pons
b. Midbrain
c. Medulla Oblongata


The nasal septum is formed by all of the following except which?
a. Perpendicular plate
b. Nasal
c. Vomer
d. Septal cartilage


The clivus is part of which of the following bones?
a. Sphenoid
b. Temporal
c. Parietal
d. Frontal


The mastoid sinuses or air cells are found within which of the following?
a. Sphenoid
b. Temporal
c. Parietal
d. Occipital


The foramen ovale is an opening through which of the following?
a. Greater wing of sphenoid
b. Lesser wing of sphenoid
c. Temporal bone
d. Vomer

Greater wing of sphenoid

The internal capsule separates which of the following?
a. Basal ganglia and thalamus
b. Putamen and claustrum
c. Claustrum and insula
d. Putamen and globus pallidus

Basal ganglia and thalamus

The falx cerebri is formed by which of the following?
a. Arachnoid mater
b. Dura mater
c. Pia mater
d. Nerve sheets

Dura mater

The vertebral arteries usually can be found on the right and left sides of what?
a. Midbrain
b. Cerebral peduncles
c. Pons
d. Medulla oblongata

Medulla oblongata

The inferior horn of the lateral ventricle is located within which of the following?
a. Parietal lobe
b. Frontal lobe
c. Occipital lobe
d. Temporal lobe

Temporal lobe

True or False? Every bone in the face articulates with the maxilla except the mandible.


True or False? The pituitary is considered an endocrine gland.


Which of the following bones is often referred to as the "keystone" of the cranium because it articulates with all of the other cranial bones?
a. Sphenoid
b. Parietal
c. Occipital
d. Temporal


Which of the following cranial nerves extends through the cribriform plate?
a. Trochlear
b. Olfactory
c. Oculomotor
d. Optic


The oculomotor nerve innervates all of the following muscles except which?
a. Superior oblique
b. Inferior oblique
c. Medial rectus
d. Inferior rectus

Superior oblique

Which of the following is located nearest to the third ventricle?
a. Thalamus
b. Caudate
c. Globus pallidus
d. Putamen


Which of the following cranial nerves is/are transmitted through the jugular foramen?
a. Glossopharyngeal
b. Spinal accessory
c. Vagus
d. All of the choices are correct

All of the choices are correct

Which of the following best describes the function of the thalamus?
a. The gland commonly has calcifications and very little function.
b. It produces hormones regulating body growth, etc.
c. It directs sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex.
d. It contro

It directs sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex.

Which of the following is found at the junction of the falx cerebri, falx cerebelli, and tentorium cerebelli?
a. Straight sinus
b. Confluence of sinuses
c. Inferior sagittal sinus
d. Vein of Galen

Straight sinus

True or False? In the anatomical position, the cerebellum is inferior to the occipital lobe and posterior to the brain stem.


True or False? The CSF produced in the lateral ventricles must drain through both the third and fourth ventricles before entering the subarachnoid space.


True or False? Although the pons is an enlarged part of the brain stem where fibers from the cerebellum join those from the cerebrum and spinal cord, the pons also contains a number of small nuclei.


True or False? The outer layer of the spinal cord is formed by gray matter, which surrounds the white matter similar to the cerebrum and cerebellum.


From superficial to deep, the three layers of meninges are as follows: ___________________ mater, and ___________________ mater.

dura, arachnoid, pia

The ___________________ is the part of the ethmoid bone filled with perforations that transmit the olfactory nerves.

cribriform plate

True or False? Many of the motor fibers extending down through the brain stem decussate or cross over to the opposite side of the body.


There are usually ___ cervical vertebrae, ___ thoracic vertebrae, ___ lumbar vertebrae, and ___ sacral segments.

7, 12 , 5, 5

The transverse foramina are characteristics of which of the following vertebrae?
a. Cervical
b. Lumbar
c. Sacral
d. Thoracic


Describe the posterior longitudinal ligament.

The layer of dense connective tissue tightly attached to the posterior surfaces of vertebrae and intervertebral discs extending from C2 to the sacrum.

The anterior border of the right L5-S1 intervertebral foramen is formed by the _______________________________________, ________________________________________, and ________________________________________________.

base of L5 transverse process, posterolateral part of L5 vertebral body, posterolateral part of L5-S1 intervertebral disc

The conus medullaris is usually found at which of the following vertebral levels?
a. T1-L2
b. L1-L3
c. L2-L4
d. L3-L5


The _____ mater is the innermost meningeal layer.


In the spine, the upper and lower borders of the intervertebral foramen are formed by the:
a. Laminae
b. Pedicles
c. Articular Processes
d. Transverse Processes


The [anterior/posterior] nerve root contains a collection of nerve cell bodies known as a ganglion.


In axial sections, which part of the vertebral column is described as having a batlike appearance?


Which of the following have the largest vertebral foramina?
a. Cervical
b. Thoracic
c. Lumbar
d. Sacral


The intervetebral joints are classified as which type of joints?
a. Amphiarthordial
b. Synarthrodial
c. Diathrodial
d. Non of the choices is correct


Nerve fibers within the posterior nerve root carry which kind of signals?
a. motor
b. Sensory


The size and shape of the intervertebral foramina are dependant on the alignment of the surrounding vertebrae.


The spinal nerve roots are surrounded by dura mater.


List the number of vertebrae typically found in each of the following regions of the vertebral column: ____________ cervical, __________ thoracic, and __________ lumbar.

7, 12, 5

The projections forming the lateral walls of the vertebral foramen are the:


The _____________ are bony projections joining the vertebral spinous and transverse processes.


The collection of lumbar and sacral nerves descending below the spinal cord is called the _________________________.

cauda equina

The majority of CSF within the spine is found within the ___________________ space.


The fat and blood vessels in the _________________ space are inside the vertebral foramina but outside the dura mater.


Nerve fibers within the anterior nerve root carry which kind of signals?
a. Motor
b. Sensory


The meninges surrounding the spinal cord are much like those surrounding the brain.


The articulation between the superior articular process and the inferior articular process forms the ____________________ joint.


The layer of dense connective tissue joining the vertebrae and intervertebral disks just anterior to the spinal cord is called the ___________________ ligament.

anterior longitudinal

In a sagittal image, the nerve roots below the L5 pedicle will form the L6 spinal nerve.


A collection of nerve cell bodies form a ganglion in which nerve root?
a. Anterior
b. Posterior


The cauda equina is within the dural sheath while it descends through the lower lumbar vertebrae.


There are eight pairs of cervical spinal nerves.


The caudal tip of the spinal cord is the __________ ______________ and is usually found at the intervertebral joint between ________ and _______.

conus medullaris, L1, L3

The intervertebral disks form approximately _________________ of the vertebral column


The inferior articular process faces posteriorly to articulate with the superior articular process.


An intervertebral disk has two distinct parts: the outer layer of dense connective tissue is the ____________ _____________, and the soft central part is the ________ _______________.

anulus fibrosus, nucleus pulposus