Pharmacology Vaccines

Active immunity occurs as

a part of the human immune response, which is activated when a pathogen such as a bacterium or virus invades the body; The body recognizes this pathogen as a foreign substance and promptly begins producing antibodies (also called immunoglobulins) and othe

When the body is first exposed to a pathogen its immune response is slow but the immune system retains memory of this pathogen. Therefore, what happens when the pathogen tries to invade again?

the immune response occurs more rapidly and more antibodies are produced to fight the pathogen which leads to the prevention of disease

Natural immunity

genetically determined in specific populations or families in which some pathogens cannot invade because it is not a suitable environment

Active immunity occurs from what?

exposure to an antigen or from passive injection of immunoglobulins

Vaccination involves what?

the administration of a small amount of antigen, which although capable of stimulating an immune response does not typically produce disease

Traditional vaccines contain what kind of microorganisms?

whole or components of inactivated (killed) mircroorganisms

Some vaccines are attenuated viruses which means they are composed of what?

live, attenuated (weakened) microorganisms

What are toxoids?

inactivated toxins, the harmful disease-causing substance produced by some microorganisms

Conjugate vaccines require a protein or toxoid from an unrelated organism to link to the outer coat of the disease-causing microorganism. This linkage creates a substance that can do what?

it can be recognized by immature immune systems such as those of infants

Give an example of a conjugate vaccine:

Haemophilus influenzae type B

Give an example of a recombinant subunit vaccine

Hepatitis B

What is an adjuvant?

a substance sometimes used in the production of a vaccine to increase the vaccine's immunogenicity and to prolong the immune response

Adjuvants are often what kind of substance?

an aluminum salt such as aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate, or aluminum potassium sulfate

When does passive immunity occur?

when an individual receives antibodies against a particular pathogen from another source

How do newborn infants naturally receive passive immunity?

via the transfer of maternal antibodies across the placenta

Whether natural or acquired, passive immunity is transient meaning what?

it lasts no more than several weeks to a few months

Vaccine preventable diseases include, but are not limited to the following

anthrax, diphtheria, Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, HPV, influenza, Japanese encephalitis, MMR, meningococcal disease, pertussis, pneumococcal disease, poliomyelitis, rabies, rotavirus, smallpox, tetanus, TB, typhoid, varic

The recommended vaccines for children are

diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis, inactivated polio, varicella, MMR, Haemophilus influenzae type B, hepatitis A & B, pneumococcal conjugate, influenza, meningococcal conjugate, HPV, and rotavirus

Routine vaccines for adults may include the following:

tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis, tetanus-diphtheria, influenza, pneumococcal polysaccharide, HPV, MMR, varicella, and zoster

When does the CDC suggest that a review of adult immunizations should be done?

on decade birthdays (e.g. age 30, 40, 50)

Risk of contracting Typhoid is greatest for travelers to where?

India, Pakistan, Mexico, Bangladesh, the Philippines, and Haiti

What is Typhoid caused by?

Salmonella enterica typhi which is generally spread via contaminated food or water

What is yellow fever?

mosquito-borne viral ilness

Where does yellow fever occur?

ONLY in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America

What is seroconversion?

the acquisition of detectable levels of antibodies in the bloodstream

Varicella vaccines should be avoided in clients with what?

a history of previous anaphylaxis to this vaccine or to any of its components, including gelatin and neomycin

The varicella virus is contraindicated in individuals with what disease?


Varicella is contraindicated in

pregnancy because its effects on fetal development is unknown and if the person has any history of anaphylaxis

Pregnancy should be avoided for how long after each dose of the varicella vaccine?

at least 1 month

Other than pregnancy, what should clients avoid after receiving the varicella vaccine?

salicylates for 6 weeks after

If the MMR vaccine is not given the same day as the varicella vaccine, what is the recommended administration strategy?

administration of the two vaccines should be separated by at least 4 weeks

The anthrax vaccine requires six injections which includes:

three given 2 weeks apart followed by three additional doses at 6, 12, and 18 months

What is a contraindication for the anthrax vaccine?


Rotavirus is a leading cause of what?

severe acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children

Name the rotavirus vaccines

RotaTeq & Rotarix

Name the HPV vaccines

Gardasil & Cervarix

Name a vaccine for pneumococcal conjugate