Pharmacology Chapter 12 Lilley

sedatives and hypnotics

drugs that have a calming effect are they depress the central nervous system

sedatives

reduce nervousness excitability and irritability without causing sleep

hypnotics

cause sleep and have a much more potent effect on the CNS

sedative hypnotics can be classified chemically into three main groups

barbiturates benzodiazepines and miscellaneous drugs

benzodiazepines

are commonly used for Sedation relief of agitation or anxiety treatment of anxiety related depression sleep induction skeletal muscle relaxation and treatment of acute seizure disorders

adverse effects of benzodiazepines

headache drowsiness paradoxical excitement or nervousness dizziness or vertigo cognitive impairment and lethargy

overdose of benzodiazepines symptoms include

Somnolence, confusion, and diminished reflexes

Flumazenil (Romazicon)

antidote for benzodiazepine overdose

nonbenzodiazepines

zaleplon (sonata) and Zolpidem (Ambien)

somnambulation

sleep walking (may happen with Ambien)

herbal products for insomnia

kava (don't drive) and Valerian

reticular formation

barbiturates are CNS depressants that act primarily on the brain stem in an area called the

adverse effects of barbiturates

relate to the CNS and include drowsiness lethargy dizziness hangover and paradoxical restlessness or excitement

overdose of barbiturates

produces CNS depression ranging from sleep to profound coma and death activated charcoal can be used as an antidote

adverse effects of muscle relaxants

euphoria, lightheadedness, dizziness, drowsiness, fatigue, muscle weakness

common muscle relaxants

baclofen (Lioresal) cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril)

muscle relaxants are used for

muscle spasms spasticity and rigidity

what to give a patient that is panicking

Valium (diazepam)

Temazepam (Restoril) will

cause drowsiness after sleeping

glucosamine chondroitin

contraindication and type 2 diabetes

indications for dexmedetodine (Precedex)

sedation for short surgeries for patients on mechanical ventilation

class of drugs that may be used for panic attacks

benzodiazepines

why does phenobarbital cause increased tension and feeling irritable and on edge in a patient who has only taking the drug for two weeks

barbiturates deprives people of REM sleep which can result in agitation

adverse effects of Temazepam (Restoril) and safety precautions

dizziness daytime drowsiness Amnesia or forgetfulness do not drive until you feel fully awake administer with caution and severely depressed patient also risk for Falls and older patient keep side rails up and bed lowered

adverse effects of cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril)

dry mouth sore throat and headache

what are factors of sleep hygiene What are non pharmacological interventions that can be done to facilitate increased or improve sleep

establish a set sleep pattern sleep only as much as you need keep bedroom temps moderate avoid caffeine containing Beverages and food within 6 hours of bedtime decrease exposure to loud noises avoid daytime napping avoid exercise late in the evening avoid

what is the focus of nursing activities if a patient has taken a Barb overdose

maintenance of inadequate Airway assisted ventilation and oxygen Administration and fluid and pressor support

Ramelteon (Rozerem) should not be used by what types of patients

patients with severe liver dysfunction

why would a patient take cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril)

for pain or injury

what are drugs that can be used for long-term management of insomnia

non benzodiazepines like zopiclone Zolpidem melatonin and Ramelteon

kava herbal tea my interact with which classes of drugs

barbiturates

cautions that must be discussed with the patient who drinks, Kava herbal tea

do not mix with alcohol

contraindications to barbiturates

drug allergy and possibly severe renal impairment

contraindications to the use of caffeine

insomnia nervousness and restlessness stomach irritation nausea and vomiting increased heart rate and respiration

Zaleplon (Sonata)

it's a sedative it can treat trouble falling asleep insomnia

Zolpidem (Ambien)

it's a sedative and can treat insomnia

Baclofen (Lioresal)

it's a muscle relaxing and can treat muscle spasms

Cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril)

it's a muscle relaxant and can treat pain and stiffness caused by muscle spasms

Dexmedetomidine (Precedex)

it's a sedative it can keep you asleep during surgery or other medical procedures

Temazepam (Restoril)

a sedative that can be used to treat insomnia

Ramelteon (Rozerem)

is a sedative and can treat trouble falling asleep (insomnia)

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