History Chapter 9 and 10 review

what is the purpose of the Bill of rights

- To protect individual and state rights
- Helped prevent fear of a central government

What caused the formation of political parties?

Divisions over:
- Economic policies
- Philosophy of government
- foreign affairs

Federalist beliefs

- supported a strong federal government
- supporting industry and trade
- supported Britain
- Supported bank of the U.S.

Republican beliefs

- supported strong state governments
- Agricultural economy
- political equality
- Supported France
- Against bank of the U.S.

Broad constructionist

interprets the constitution loosely. If it doesn't say we can't then we can.

strict constructionist

an approach to constitutional interpretation that emphasizes the Framers' original intentions. if it doesn't say we can then we can't.

Strict constructionist is related to which political party.


broad constructionist is related to which political party.


What were Alexander Hamiltons goals?

- Establish the U.S. credit
- Get the rich to invest In the countries well being

Alexander Hamiltons ideas to relieve public debt

- Fund national debt by selling bonds
- federal government will assume the debt of the states
- Tax on whisky to help pay off debt

First Bank of the United States

- Acts as federal depository
- issue currency
- regulate state banks

Whisky rebellion

Congress put a tax on all whisky made and sold in u,s, revolt tested strength of government, farmers grew corn to make whisky, refused to pay tax on it, farmers rebelled on tax collector by burning down his home, large angry mob marched through Pittsburgh

Thomas Jefferson

3rd President of the United States
- Presidential vision was republican simplicity
- Didn't want voters to be swayed by employers or community
- Wanted a small government and no federal taxes

12th Amendment

separation of votes for President and Vice President
- Gave the electoral college power in the vice presidential election

John Adams

2nd president
- Pledged neutrality during the French and British conflicts

XYZ Affair

An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.
- Lead to the Quasi-war w

Quasi War

Undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France. The French began to seize American ships trading with their British enemies.

Judicial Review

Allows the court to determine the constitutionality of laws

Embargo acts

a law that prohibited American merchants from trading with other countries
- Damaged the U.S. economy

Louisiana purchase

territory in western United States purchased from France for $15 million
- Allowed much room for expansion
- Doubled the size of the United States.

Lewis and clark expedition

an expedition sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore the northwestern territories of the United States
- Find the source of the Mississippi river
- Establish relations with the Indian tribes
- Record new plant and animal species
- Reach the pacific


Native American chief who tried to organize a group of tribes to resist white settlement in the northwest.

War of 1812 causes

American neutrality was ignored.
- impressment of US sailors by the British Navy
- Tecumseh's confederation

War of 1812 results

No clear winner
- Things were virtually the same and no territory changed hands
- broke Native American strength
- increase in US patriotism


War of 1812

Battle of New Orleans

A battle during the War of 1812 where the British army attempted to take New Orleans. Due to the foolish frontal attack, Andrew Jackson defeated them, which gave him an enormous popularity boost.

Hartford convention

Ruined Federalist Party
- Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much inf

Andrew Jackson

Became a national hero after the war of 1812.
- Specifically because of his success during the battle of new Orleans

Femme Covert

Traditional Roman then English legal term for a married woman.

Womens status

Didn't change.
- Expected to just stay home and raise good American citizens

Era of Good Feelings

A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.

James Monroe

The fifth President of the United States. His administration was marked by the acquisition of Florida; the Missouri Compromise; and the profession of the Monroe Doctrine

Monroe Doctrine

an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers.
- Saw any foreign action on U.S. soil as a threat

Oregon Territory

Split between U.S. and Great Britain

Florida Annexation

Spain gave Florida to the U.S. The fertile land drew settlers and planters

Missouri Compromise

Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.

John Quincy Adams

Served as sixth president under Monroe. Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas.

Election of 1824

No one won a majority of electoral votes, so the House of Representatives had to decide among Adams, Jackson, and Clay. Clay dropped out and urged his supporters in the House to throw their votes behind Adams. Jackson and his followers were furious and ac

Zebulon Pike

American soldier and explorer whom Pikes Peak in Colorada is named. His Pike expedition often compared to the lewis and Clark expedition, mapped much of the southern portion of the Louisianna Purchase

Marbury v. Madison

the first time the Supreme Court declared an act fo congress unconstitutional.
- This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.

Alien and Sedition Acts

Series of four laws enacted to reduce the political power of recent immigrants.

Barbary Wars

President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay tribute to protect American ships from the Barbary pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations.