Chapter 23 - Chapter 26

transcontinental railroad

- finished 1869, congress subsidized cost of railroad construction and gave companies unused public land
-built by Central Pacific Railroad Company (CA side) and Union Pacific Railroad Company (Nebraska side)
- immigrants (Irish + Chinese) built a lot of

Credit Mobilier Scandal

- Union Pacific railroad insider created a construction company and hired themselves to built the railroad line at inflated prices so they would earn more money
- they distributed shares of the company's stock to congressmen so that congress would not shu

Panic of 1873

- in 1873 rapid plummet caused by promoters over reached themselves (laid too many railroad tracks, built to many factories)
- bankers made too many loans = economic crash
- many businesses went bankrupt/blacks hit hard because they lost savings in the ba

Battle of Little Bighorn

- successful Indian triumph0 Sioux Indian war party attempt to stop construction of Boseman trail through Montana, leaving no survivors --> American government signed a treaty that abandoned the Boseman trail to the Sioux tribe
- Americans come back to Si


- blacks forced into sharecropping after Democratic redeemers took control of the south
- storekeepers gave credit to small farmers for food and supplies --> then they would take a small farmers for food and supplies
- landowners manipulated the system so

Civil Rights Act of 1875

- this was the last Radical Republican Act of Reconstruction
- guaranteed equal accommodations in public placed and banned racial discrimination in jury selection
- significance: later declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court (they tried to work aro

Great Railroad Strike of 1877

- after the Panic of 1873 railroad workers faced a hard time and then in 1877 the 4 largest railroad presidents decided to cut wages by 10% so the workers struck back
- federal courts, US Army, state militias, and local police all lent their muscle to kee

Knights of Labor

It began inauspiciously in 1869 as a secret society with private rituals, passwords and handshakes
They sought to include workers in 1 big union
Led by Terence Powderly
They welcomed skilled, unskilled, men, women, whites, and blacks, About 90,000 joined

Compromise of 1877

-The election was to be broken by the electoral count act
-Passed by congress in 1877
-Set up an electoral commission consisting of 15 men selected from the senate, house, and supreme court
-Democrats afrees that hayes might take office in return for with


- Republican president 1881
- assassinated early into term

Chinese Exclusion Act

Many Chinese immigrants came to mine for gold and build railroads
They competed with workers because they were cheap to hire and it caused a lot of Nativism
Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act in order to appease Nativists
It stopped Chinese im

Haymarket square riot

In Chicago police tried to break up a protest against police brutality
Someone threw a bomb ? several people died
8 anarchists were convicted, but the Knights of labor were blamed ? causing them to lose public support
Caused the Knights of Labor's 8

American Federation of Labor founded

Founded by Samuel Gompers ? made attempts at social reform and supported capitalism
Association of self-governing unions ? unifying was their overall strategy
Only skilled workers ? no unskilled laborers,, women, or blacks
Wanted better wages and working

Wabash vs. illinois

Individual states could not regulate interstate commerce
This cause hurt the farmers because it got rid of their legislations
It got rid of the Grange's attempt to regulate railroad rates

interstate commerece act

Prohibited rebates/pools
Required railroads to openly publish their rates
Forbade charging different rates over the same line
Also the Interstate Commerce Commission was created in order to administer/enforce the legislation

Dawes Severalty Act

Indian Reform Movement to correct Indian policy by wiping out Native American ownership of land, dissolved tribes as legal entities, and created separate Indian family heads with 160 free acres.
reflected the ideals of forced-civilization reformers

Hull House

founded by Jane Addams (1889)
Hull House provided counseling to help deal with new city life, cultural activities, child care, and instruction in English
Hull House = located in a poor immigrant neighborhood
mostly run by middle-class US women and offered

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

Cause: people were tired of monopolies
Wanted to control the trust through state legislation
prohibits combination in restraint of trade without distinction between "good" and "bad" trusts.
Loopholes = the downfall
Did not work


National Association for the Advancement of Women
Feminists put away their efforts for suffrage during civil war to shift focus
Argued women should have right to vote because voting discussed things such as education that women typically have a role in

McKinley Tariff

raised tax to a peacetime high of over 48%
Crushed farmers and the poor
protects Republicans from foreign competition
Just a giant tariff
Highest peace time tariff

Battle of Wounded Knee

Background: US gov. Made it illegal to practice the "Sun Dance" which led to the illegal "Ghost Dance" movement practiced by Indians
US army clashed with Indians at the Battle of Wounded Knee because the US was angry that the Ghost Dance was being pr

Sherman Silver Purchase Act

About government buying more silver, and making more silver coins = inflation

Closing the frontier

All the land is gone, no more unclaimed territory
Americans became concerned when unsettled areas because separate bodies of settlement as part of closing the frontier
New states: ND, SD, WY, WA, ID, MT, OK
US superintendent said that there was no distinc

Populist party

Formed by angry farmers
Group that called for the nationalization of railroads, graduated income tax, subtreasury, unlimited silver coinage, more civilian involvement in elections, immigrtion restriction, 8 hour work day, once term limit for presidency

homestead strike

A strike at a Carnegie steel plant in Homestead, Pennsylvania that ended in an armed battled between the strikers, 300 armed Pinkerton detectives hired by Carnegie and federal troops that wounded over 60 and killed 10
The strike was part of a nationw

Panic of 1893

President Grover Cleveland was in power � so democratic party was in control
Economic crisis sparked by railroad speculation/stock market crash
Hit farmers hard and left millions in the cities without work
SIGNIFICANCE Led to the repeal of the Sherman Sil

Coxey's Army

Coxey's Army was a group of populists
Led by "General" Jacob S. Coxey
Protesting their current oppressive economic/political system (men apart of the army were left unemployed from Panic of 1893)
Coxey's main demand was that the government should rel

Pullman Strike

Labor protest that turned violent in Chicago, 1894.
Pullman Palace Car Company reduced their wages by over a third due to economic depression
Workers were enraged, striking against the company.
Dispatch of federal troops due to the protestors behavio

William Jennings Bryan

Cross of Gold speech delivered by William Jennings Bryan during the democratic convention
Bryan ran in the election of 1896 as democratic candidate
In Cross of Gold speech, Bryan petitioned for the use of silver
Opposing the gold standard, the former cong

Plessy vs. Ferguson

Supreme court case in which Homer Plessy sat in the "white" section on a railroad car, was arrested for violating Separate Car Act
Led to "Separate but equal" decision
SIGNIFICANCE Later led to the establishment of Jim Crow laws in the South (segrega