chapter 20 earth science


a measure of the amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of liquid

pack ice

a floating layer of sea ice that completely covers an area of the ocean surface


a layer in a body of water in which water temperature drops with increased depth faster than it does in other layers


the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance; commonly expressed as grams per cubic centimeter for solids and liquids and as grams per limit for gases.

ocean temperature

this measurement is affected by the amount of solar energy an area receives and by the movement of the water

ocean color

by studying variations in this scientists can determine the presence of phytoplankton in the ocean


the mass of mostly microscopic organic s that float or drift freely in the waters of aquatic environments


the movement of deep, cold, and nutrient-rich water to the surface.


all organisms that swim actively in open water, independent of currents


organisms that live at the bottom of oceans or bodies of fresh water

benthic zone

the bottom region of oceans and bodies of fresh water

pelagic zone

the region of an ocean or body of fresh water above the benthic zone


a process of removing salt from ocean water


the raising of aquatic plants and animals for human use or consumption

food,minerals,fresh water

important resources of the ocean

cold ocean water dissolves gases more readily than

warm ocean water does

dissolved solids make up how much of the mass of oceans water?



melting ice crystals to produce fresh water

reverse osmosis

using a filter and high pressure to mine fresh water from ocean water

the ocean is the main source of the trace minerals

magnesium and bromine

a major problem for aquaculture is

severe weather

most oxygen enters the ocean from

the atmosphere

gases dissolve most easily in

cold ocean water

ocean water temperature depends on the solar energy an area receives and the waters


as deep ocean water becomes colder, it also becomes


two factors that affect the salinity of ocean water are

density and temperature

cold ocean water sinks and moves through the

ocean basins

how do marine organisms help balance the chemistry of ocean water?

by removing nutrients and gases and returning other nutrients and gases to the water

what is called the foundation of life in the ocean


nutrients in ocean water are stored

in deep water

which of the following live in the pelagic zone

marine mammals

some inorganic sediments in the ocean basin come from