APES Chapter 10 Review

tragedy of the commons

The tendency of a shared, limited resource to become depleted because people act from self-interest for short-term gain.


The cost or benefit of a good or service that is not included in the purchase price of that good or service.

maximum sustainable yield (MSY)

The maximum amount of a renewable resource that can be harvested without compromising the future availability of that resource.

resource conservation ethic

The belief that people should maximize use of resources, based on the greatest good for everyone.

multiple-use lands

A U.S. classification used to designate lands that may be used for recreation, grazing, timber harvesting, and mineral extraction.


A dry, open grassland.


Land dominated by trees and other woody vegetation and sometimes used for commercial logging.


A method of harvesting trees that involves removing all or almost all of the trees within an area.

selective cutting

The method of harvesting trees that involves the removal of single trees or a relatively small number of trees from among many in a forest.

ecologically sustainable forestry

An approach to removing trees from forests in ways that do not unduly affect the viability of other trees.

tree plantation

A large area typically planted with a single rapidly growing tree species.

prescribed burn

A fire deliberately set under controlled in order to reduce the accumulation of dead biomass on a forest floor.

national wildlife refuge

A federal public land managed for the primary purpose of protecting wildlife.

national wilderness area

An area set aside with the intent of preserving a large tract of intact ecosystem or a landscape.

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

A 1969 U.S. federal act that mandates an environmental assessment of all projects involving federal money or federal permits.

environmental impact statement (EIS)

A document outlining the scope and purpose of a development project, describing the environmental context, suggesting alternative approaches to the project, and analyzing the environmental impact of each alternative.

environmental mitigation plan

A plan that outlines how a developer will address concerns raised by a project's impact on the environment.

Endangered Species Act

A 1973 U.S. act that implements CITES, designed to protect species from extinction.


An area surrounding a metropolitan center, with a comparatively low population density.


An area similar to a suburb, but unconnected to any central city or densely populated area.

urban sprawl

Urbanized areas that spread into rural areas, removing clear boundaries between the two.

urban blight

The degradation of the built and social environments of the city that often accompanies and accelerates migration to the suburbs.

Highway Trust Fund

A U.S. federal fund that pays for the construction and maintenance of roads and highways.

induced demand

The phenomenon in which increase in the supply of a good causes demand to grow.


A planning tool used to separate industry and business from residential neighborhoods.

mulit-use zoning

A zoning classification that allows retail and high-density residential development to coexist in the same area.

smart growth

A set of principles for community planning that focuses on strategies to encourage the development of sustainable, healthy communities.


A person or organization with an interest in a particular place or issue.

sense of place

The feeling that an area has distinct and meaningful character.

transit-oriented development (TOD)

Development that attempts to focus dense residential and retail development around stops for public transportation, a component of smart growth.


Development that fills in vacant lots within existing communities.

urban growth boundary

A restriction on development outside a designated area.

eminent domain

A principle that grants government the power to acquire a property at fair market value even if the owner does not wish sell it.