APES Friedland and Relyea Ch. 14

Water Pollution

pollution of the water in rivers and lakes

Point Sources

point, from specific location such as a pipe. Non-point, from over an area such as runoff

Nonpoint Sources

broad, and diffuse areas, rather than points, from which pollutants enter bodies of surface water or air


water mixed with waste matter

Oxygen-demanding Waste

organic matter that enters a body of water and feeds microbes that are decomposers

Biochemical Oxygen Demand

Amount of oxygen required by aquatic bacteria to decompose a given load of organic waste;a measure of water pollution


process by which a body of water becomes too rich in dissolved nutrients, leading to plant growth that depletes oxygen

Cultural Eutrophication

an increase in biological productivity and ecosystem succession caused by human activities

Dead Zones

a area of water where there is no oxygen left

Indicator Species

species that serve as early warnings that a community or ecosystem is being degraded

Fecal Coliform Bacteria

bacteria found in the intestinal tracts of warm-blooded animals

Septic System

small waste water system used by a single home or business

Septic Tank

large tank where solid matter or sewage is disintegrated by bacteria


gooey mixture of toxic chemicals, infectious agents, and settled solids removed from wastewater at a sewage treatment plant


the middle layer of fairly clear water, contains large quantities of bacteria and may also contain pathogenic organisms and inorganic nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous

Leach Field

the ground area around a septic tank through which wastewater filters after leaving the tank

Manure Lagoons

human-made ponds lined with rubber built to handle large quantities of manure produced by livestock

Acid Deposition

the return to earth as rain or snow of the sulfate or nitrate salts of acids produced by commercial and industrial activities


synthetic chemicals containing chlorine that are used in the manufacture of plastics and other industrial products, become stored in the tissue of animals, and also persist in the environment


synthetic compunds that provide fire retardant properties and are used in a diverse array of consumer products including computers tvs plastics and furniture

Thermal Pollution

a temperature increase in a body of water that is caused by human activity and that has a harmful effect on water quality and on the ability of that body of water to support life

Thermal Shock

sudden increase or decrease in temperature that puts great stress on a fired clay body, causing it to crack, When a source of thermal pollution first starts of stops, fish and other organisms adapted to particular temperature range can be killed by the ab

Maximum Contaminant Levels

the greatest amount of a contaminant that can be present in drinking water without causing risk to human health