APES Chapter 10

Describe the Green Belt Movement founded by Wangari Maathai.

Made to plant and protect millions of trees to combat deforestation

Uncut; not disturbed for hundreds of years; counts for 36% of all trees

Old-growth forest

Secondary ecological succession; counts for 60% of all trees

Second growth forest

Mostly monocultures; less biologically diverse

Tree plantation

What major ecological and economic benefits do forests provide?

Eco-purify water and air, reduce soil erosion, support energy flow and chemical cycling
Econ-fuel wood, lumber, mining, and recreation

What did Robert Costanza do to put a a price tag on the major ecological services provided by forests and other ecosystems?

Robert Costanza led a research team that found that our forests' ecological services are worth more than their economic value

Describe the harm caused by building roads into previously inaccessible forests.

Sediment runoff into waterway
Habitat fragmentation
Decrease of biodiversity
Easier for nonnative species to invade

Older trees are cut singly or in small groups

Selective cutting

Removing all trees

Clear cutting

Clearing a strip of trees along the contour of the land that is narrow enough to allow for natural regeneration within a few years

Strip cutting

What are the major advantages and disadvantages of clear-cutting forests

Ads-Higher timber yields, maximum profits in shortest time, reforestation with faster growing trees, and good for tree species needing full or moderate sunlight
Disads- Reduces biodiversity, destroys wildlife, increases pollution, and eliminates most recr

Name and describe the two types of forest fires.

Surface fire- burns only undergrowth and leaf litter
Crown fire- burns all trees

What are some ecological benefits of occasional surface fires?

Burn away flammable ground materials, free valuable mineral nutrients tied up in slowly decomposing little and undergrowth, and help to control tree diseases

What are four ways to reduce the harmful impacts of diseases and insects on forests?

Ban imported timber, remove infected trees, use pesticides, and develop new tree species that are genetically resistant to such diseases

What effects might projected climate change have on forests?

Rising temperatures could interfere with the trees' cycles of needing certain temperatures at certain times of the year

Temporary or permanent removal of large expanses of forest for agriculture, settlement, or other uses


What parts of the world are experiencing the greatest forest losses?

Less-developed countries in boreal or coniferous forests

List some major harmful environmental effects of deforestation.

Decreased soil fertility
Runoff of eroded soil
Extinction of species
Loss of habitat
Regional climate change
Release of CO2
Increase of flooding

Describe the encouraging news about deforestation in the United States.

Net total forest cover has stayed the same or increased

How serious is tropical deforestation?

Very serious as most of the world's tropical forests may disappear in 20-40 years

What are the major underlying and direct causes of tropical deforestation?

Underlying-poverty, population growth, government polices, not valuing ecological services
Direct- Road fires and tree plantations

Describe four ways to manage forest more sustainably.

Put tree plantations only on deforested land, used certified timber, include ecological services of forests, and leave dead or fallen timber for wildlife habitat and nutrient cycling

Name four ways to reduce the harm to forests and to people caused by forest fires.

Allow some fires on public lands to burn, thin out a forest zone by houses, thin out by removing trees, and construct prescribed fires

What is certified timber?

Timber grown using more sustainable methods and has FSC logo on it

Surface fires started to reduce build up of underbrush

Prescribed fire

Name three ways to reduce the need to harvest trees.

Reducing waste, finding alternatives, and embracing sustainable use

Describe the fuelwood crisis and list three ways to reduce its severity.

Half the wood we harvest is used for fuel
Establish small plantations, burn wood more efficiently by using less-polluting stoves, use stoves that are solar or wind powered to burn

Name five ways to protect tropical forests and use them more sustainably.

Protect the most diverse and endangered species, reduce poverty, educate settlers about sustainable agriculture and forestry, Subsidize only sustainable forest use, and certify sustainably grown timber

Unfenced grasslands in temperate and tropical climates that provide forage for animals


Managed grasslands or fenced meadows usually planted with domesticated grasses used for grazing livestock


What is overgrazing and what are its harmful environmental effects?

When too many animals graze for too long, damaging the grasses and their roots, and exceeding the caring capacity of the rangeland area.
Reduces grass cover, exposes soil to erosion, and compacts the soil

Name three ways to reduce overgrazing and use rangelands more sustainably.

Use rotational grazing, support growth of invasive species, and replant barren areas with native grass

What major environmental threats affect national parks in the world and in the United States?

Noise pollution, congestion, and damage to vegetation and wildlife

How could national parks in the United States be used more sustainably?

Reintroduce native species, buy private land, increase the number of park rangers and their pay, and seek private donations fore park maintenance and repairs to preserve biodiversity

What percentage of the world's land has been set aside and protected as nature reserves, and what percentage do conservation biologists believe should be protected?

5% 20%

How should nature reserves be designed and connected?

Strictly protected interior with buffer zone and corridors for migration

What is wilderness and why is it important?

Land untouchable by humans; very biodiverse

Describe the controversy over protecting wilderness in the U.S.

3/4 is in Alaska which only covers 4.7% of the U.S.

Describe a four point strategy for protecting ecosystems.

Map the world's terrestrial ecosystems and create and inventory of the species contained in each of them, Locate and protect the most endangered species, seek to restore degraded ecosystems, and make development biodiversity-friendly by providing financia

Areas rich in plant species that is endangered

Biodiversity hotspot

Reserve damage done by humans to restore land back to its natural state

Ecological restoration

Invent and maintain habits for species diversity

Reconciliation ecology

Name four ways in which we can all help sustain the earth's terrestrial biodiversity.

Restore habitats, rehab degraded ecosystems, replace a degraded ecosystem, and create an artificial ecosystems