Anterior triangle

What are the boundaries of the anterior triangle?

midline of the neck
inferior border of the mandible
SCM

What is the roof of the anterior triangle?

platysma (same as posterior triangle)

What muscle separates the anterior from the posterior triangle?

SCM

The anterior triangle is subdivided in to four smaller triangles. List them

submental triangle
submandibular triangle
muscular triangle
carotid triangle

Which of the four smaller triangles of the anterior triangle fits the following description?
unpaired; bounded by anterior bellies of digastric and hyoid bone

submental triangle

What is the floor of the submental triangle?

mylohyoid muscles

What is contained within the submental triangle? What do they do?

submental lymph nodes, which drain the tip of the tongue, mandibular incisors, and the median part of the lower lip

Which of the four smaller triangles of the anterior triangle fits the following description?
bounded by the inferior border of mandible and the anterior/posterior bellies of the digastric muscle.

submandibular triangle

What forms the floor of the submandibular triangle?

the mylohyoid and hypoglossus muscles (the mylohyoid overlaps the hypoglossus)

What is contained within the submandibular triangle?

superficial part of the submandibular gland, the submandibular lymph nodes, and part of the facial vessels.

What do the submandibular lymph nodes do?

drain the upper lip and lateral part of the lower lip, the margin of the tongue, and all the teeth

Which of the four smaller triangles of the anterior triangle fits the following description?
bounded by the midline of the neck, SCM, and superior belly of omohyoid muscle

muscular triangle

What muscles are included in the deep layer of the muscular triangle?

sternothyroid and thyrohyoid

Which of the four smaller triangles of the anterior triangle fits the following description?
bounded by the posterior belly of the digastric muscle, SCM, and superior belly of the omohyoid

carotid triangle

Where is the hyoid bone found?

inferior to the mandible at the level of C3

Where is the thyroid cartilage of the larynx found?

at the level of C4 and C5

Where is the cricoid cartilage of the larynx found?

at the level of C6

What begins just inferior to the cricoid cartilage and C6?

the trachea and esophagus

What are the suprahyoid muscles?

digastric (anterior/posterior)
stylohyoid
mylohyoid
geniohyoid

Digastric (anterior belly)
origin:
insertion:
innervation:

origin: digastric fossa of mandible
insertion: hyoid
innervation: nerve to the mylohyoid (a branch of V3, the mandibular nerve)

Digastric (posterior body)
origin:
insertion:
innervation:

origin: mastoid process
insertion: hyoid
innervation: facial nerve (VII)

Stylohyoid
origin:
insertion:
innervation:

Origin: styloid process (of temporal bone)
Insertion: hyoid
Innervation: cranial nerve VII (facial nerve)

Mylohyoid
origin:
insertion:
innervation:

Origin: mylohyoid line of mandible
Insertion: mylohyoid raphe and body of hyoid (a raphe is a connective tissue where two muscles attach end to end)
Innervation: nerve to the mylohyoid (a branch of V3, the mandibular nerve.

What are the collective functions of the suprahyoid muscles?

Pull the hyoid up. This elevates the tongue during swallowing, and forces food into the pharynx
-Also depress the mandible when the hyoid is held stationary

What are the infrahyoid muscles (strap muscles)?

sternohyoid
omohyoid (inferior/superior)
sternothyroid
thyrohyoid

What nerve innervates the infrahyoids?

ansa cervicalis

What are the functions of the infrahyoid muscles, collectively?

Primarily responsible for moving the larynx (which is the region defined by the thyroid cartilage). Infrahyoids connect to that thyroid cartilage to elevate the larynx up to facilitate swallowing. Elevate larynx to assist the epiglottis in closing so you

What are the 8 branches of the external carotid artery?

Superior thyroid artery
Ascending pharyngeal artery
Lingual artery
Facial artery
Occipital artery
Posterior auricular artery
Superficial temporal artery
Maxillary artery

What area does the superior thyroid supply?

thyroid

What area does the ascending pharyngeal artery supply?

pharynx

What area does the lingual artery supply?

tongue

What area does the facial artery supply?

superficial face

What area does the occipital artery supply?

back of the scalp

What area does the posterior auricular artery supply?

ear

What area does the superficial temporal artery supply?

temple

What area does the maxillary artery supply?

deep structures of the face

What is the dilation of the proximal part of the interior carotid artery that contains baroreceptors which monitor blood pressure?

carotid sinus

What is the tiny clump of chemoreceptors that monitor the oxygen content of the blood?

carotid body

What does the carotid sinus and carotid body do if blood pressure or oxygen content becomes too low?

afferent impulses from the carotid sinus and body travel to the brainstem via the carotid sinus branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve, where they elicit the appropriate cardiac and respiratory reflexes

The internal jugular is the largest vein in the head and neck. Where does it begin?

begins at the jugular foramen as a continuation of the sigmoid venous sinus inside the skull

Where does the internal jugular end?

ends at the root of the neck by uniting with the subclavian vein to form the brachiocephalic vein

What is found within the carotid sheath?

internal jugular vein
common carotid artery
vagus nerve (posterior and intermediate)

What lies anteriorly to the carotid sheath?

lobe of the thyroid gland

What is the chain of lymph nodes that runs along the internal jugular vein called?

deep cervical chain

What muscle divides the superior deep cervical nodes from the inferior deep cervical nodes?

omohyoid muscle

What is the name of the superior deep cervical nodes which lie near the internal jugular vein where the posterior belly of the digastric muscle and the tendon of the omohyoid muscle cross the internal jugular vein?

juguloomohyoid nodes

What lymph trunk is formed from all of the efferent vessels of the deep cervical nodes collecting lymph from all parts of the head and neck?

jugular lymph trunk

What are the three branches of the vagus nerve in the neck?

internal laryngeal nerve
external laryngeal nerve
recurrent laryngeal nerve

Which of the three branches of the vagus nerve in the neck are GVA and SVE?

recurrent laryngeal nerve

Which of the three branches of the vagus nerve in the neck are SVE only?

external laryngeal nerve

Which of the three branches of the vagus nerve in the neck are GVA only?

internal laryngeal nerve

Which of the three branches of the vagus nerve in the neck is important in the cough reflex?

internal laryngeal nerve

Which of the three branches of the vagus nerve in the neck fits the following description?
Pierces the thyrohyoid membrane
Sensory information to the larynx above the vocal cords

internal laryngeal nerve

Which of the three branches of the vagus nerve in the neck sends motor information to the cricothyroid muscle of the larynx?

external laryngeal nerve

Which of the three branches of the vagus nerve in the neck fits the following description?
GVA sensory to the larynx
below the vocal cords
SVE motor to the intrinsic muscles of the larynx
except for the cricothyroid muscle

recurrent laryngeal nerve

What does the right recurrent laryngeal nerve hook around (recur around)?

the right subclavian artery

What does the left recurrent laryngeal nerve recur around?

aortic arch

L or R recurrent laryngeal nerve ascends in the neck in the groove between the trachea and the esophagus as they pass to the larynx?

both ascend in the neck in the groove between the trachea and the esophagus as they pass to the larynx

What structures are found running deep of the posterior belly of the digastric?

internal/external carotids
lingual and facial arteries
X, XI, XII
sympathetic trunk
internal jugular vein

The ansa cervicalis innervates the strap muscles (infrahyoid muscles). What class of innervation do the strap muscles have?

GSE

The ansa is formed from the union of a superior root and an inferior root. What fibers is the superior root composed of?

fibers from the C1 spinal nerve

What cranial nerve do C1 fibers join with high in the neck (but later split off from) to create the superior root?

XII (hypoglossal)

The ansa is formed from the union of a superior root and an inferior root. What fibers is the inferior root composed of?

fibers from C2 and C3 spinal nerves

How do sympathetic fibers reach structures in the head and neck?

The cervical part of the sympathetic trunk (which consists of three, sometimes four, ganglia and the longitudinal fibers connecting them)

Where is the cervical part of the sympathetic trunk found?

Lies posterior to the carotid sheath and anterior to the prevertebral muscles

What type of fibers does the cervical part of the sympathetic trunk consist of? Where are the somas of these fibers located?

consists largely of ascending presynaptic fibers, the somas of which lie in the lateral horn of the upper thoracic part of the spinal cord

Synapses in the cervical part of the sympathetic trunk occur in the superior, middle, or inferior cervical ganglia. Sometimes there is a fourth ganglia. What is the fourth ganglia called? Where is it found relative to the other ganglia?

vertebral ganglia
found between the middle and inferior ganglia

Which of the ganglia is usually fused with the first thoracic ganglia? What is this fusion called?

inferior ganglia
cervicothoracic ganglia

What are the two ways that post synaptic fibers reach structures in the head and neck?

gray ramus communicans
plexuses of post synaptic fibers travel along the carotid arteries

What are the effectors of post synaptic fibers in the head and neck?

smooth muscle and glands

What is horner's syndrome?

a series of signs which occurs following a lesion to the cervical part of the sympathetic trunk

What are the symptoms of Horner's syndrome?

miosis
ptosis
redness and increased temperature of skin
anhidrosis

What causes the miosis of Horner's syndrome?

paralysis of the dilator pupillae muscle

What causes the ptosis of Horner's syndrome?

paralysis of the superior tarsal muscle

What causes the redness and increased temperature of skin of Horner's syndrome?

vasodilation

What causes the anhidrosis of Horner's syndrome?

sweat glands can't secrete

Are the following muscles SVE or GSE?
Muscles of mastication
Muscles of facial expression
Muscles of pharynx, larynx, soft palate, and striated fibers of esophagus
Digastric, mylohyoid, stylohyoid
Tensor tympani muscle and stapedius muscle (middle ear)
Tr

SVE

Are the following muscles SVE or GSE?
Suboccipital muscles
Scalene muscles
Prevertebral muscles (longus colli, etc.)
Strap (infrahyoid) muscles
Extrinsic eyeball muscles (rectus muscles and obliques)
Tongue muscles (except palatoglossus)

GSE