UCF - Dr. Ahangari - Human Physiology Exam 1

What is the function of glycocalyx?

Functions in cell-to-cell recognition

Where does the transition from glucose-6-phosphate into free glucose take place?


How does oral rehydration therapy work?

Cotransport of Na+ and glucose

What structure is continuous with the rough endoplasmic reticulum?

Nuclear Envelope

What is the function of an integral protein?

Could act as a receptor

How does water diffuse across a cellular membrane?

Simple diffusion (osmosis)

How would insulin be absorbed into a cell?

Receptor mediated endocytosis

What is the etiology of familial hypercholesterolemia?

Cells lack the receptors that bind to cholesterol binding LDLs

What is the etiology of marfan syndrome?

Defect of a gene in chromosome 15

NOT a function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum:

It has no ribosomes and is involved in protein production

Gaucher's disease deals with the lack of

Glucocerebrosidase enzyme

Which step of the cell life cycle is not present in interphase?


Which of the following is absent in Meiosis II?

Crossing over

A patient walks in and you diagnose him with Klinefelter syndrome. How would you explain this to the patient?

Disjunction of an X chromosome

A gamete contains

23 single chromosome and 1N amount of DNA

The mitochondrial theory of aging involves a decrease of energy production by radical-damaged mitochondria.
Which of the following vitamins act as antioxidants and prevent excessive production of free radicals?

Vitamin C and E

Programmed cell death contributes to many diseases. The disease that results from extensive nerve cell loss is:


NOT a characteristic of malignant neoplasm

Is a local mass, remained encapsulated, compacted, grows slowly

NOT a characteristics are correct for phagocytosis


Which of the following epithelial tissues allows the bladder to distend?


Which of the following methods of exocrine secretion is used in the mammary glands?


NOT a characteristics of gap junctions

Connected by 7 hollow cylinders of protein

Fibrilin-1, a glycoprotein, is linked to the disorder Marfan syndrome.
What is the purpose of fibrilin?

Fibrilin is essential for the formation of the elastic fibers found in connective tissue

A patient walks in with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
Which of the following collagens are defected?

Collagen III

Permeability of the cell membrane increases with increasing

Oil/water partition coefficient

NOT a characteristics of Type I Diabetes


Gastric parietal cell transports H+ into the stomach by

Primary Active Transport

NOT a characteristic of a tight junction

They are located near the basal surface of the cell

What is an atomic number?

Number of protons

What is a neutralization reaction?

Equal number of hydrogen and hydroxide ions

Four types of tissue:

Muscle ; Epithelial ; Nervous ; Connective (MENC)

Three types of muscle:

Skeletal ; Smooth ; Cardiac

Epithelial cells shape classifications:

Squamous ; Cuboidal ; Columnar

Epithelial classification # of cell layers:

Simple ; Stratified ; Pseudostratified

Simple squamous is found where?

alveoli (to facilitate gas exchange);
body cavities ;
capillaries (to reduce friction)

Function of simple cuboidal epithelium?

Secretion and absorption

Location of simple cuboidal epithelium:

germinal epithelium ; kidney tubules ; ducts of the glands ; gonads ; reproductive tract
(The german kids ducks go reproduce)

Location of simple columnar epithelium:

lining of stomach and intestines ; nose ; ears ; taste buds

Function of simple columnar epithelium:

Secrete mucus or slime (GI TRACT)

Function of pseudostratified columnar epithelium:

Secretion ; mucus ; protection

Location of pseudostratified columnar epithelium:

Ducts of large glands ; upper respiratory tract ; trachea (ciliated kind)

Function of Stratified Cuboidal epithelia:


Location of stratified cuboidal epithelia:

ducts of sweat glands ; male urethra

Function of stratified columnar epithelium:

Protection ; secretion

Location of stratified columnar epithelium:

male urethra ; large ducts of some glands

Location of stratified squamous epithelium:


Location of transitional epithelium:

urinary bladder ; urethra ; ureter

Function of transitional epithelium:

accelerates urine flow in renal system

____ chromosomes total
_____ are somatic
_____ are sex chromosomes

46 ; 44 ; 2

_____________ is the first stage in cell life cycle
G1 - ___________ then begins replication
S Phase - DNA _____________
G2 - ___________ needed for cell division -> finish _________ -> cells get ready to divide

interphase ; growth ; replication/synthesis ; enzymes ; replication

Prophase - _____________ are formed.
_____________ - each chromosome has 2 identical chromatin threads
Protein complex, _____________, and centromeres hold the chromatids together
_____________ - attached to the chromosomes

Asters and chromosomes ; chromatids ; cohesion ; Kinetochores

Metaphase - chromosomes _____________
Anaphase - chromosomes _____________

Line up ; separate

_____________ - brief moment when one cell may have two nuclei


Telophase - _____ ___________

cell division

Meiosis I
-Begins with _________
-Crossing over
-_________/Cell division

synapsis ; disjunction

Meiosis II
-No _____________ nor _____________
-Starts with ________
-_________/Cell Division
-Gametes = _______ step in meiotic cell division

synapses ; crossing over ; alignment ; disjunction ; final

Disjunction - if there is any mutation to the gene structure or abnormal disjunction -> ___________________

genetic disorder

For contraction of muscles, you need _________


_____calcemia - deficiency of Calcium (less than __ mg/dL), no muscle contraction
_____calcemia - muscle always contracting

Hypo ; 10 ; Hyper

Blood _________ can affect muscle contraction


In heart contractility of myocardium, ____________ decreases

heart activity

Nerve Tissues
Produce neurotransmitters such as ______________, ______________, __________

Acetyl Choline (ACh) ; Norepinephrine/Epinephrine ; serotonin

Nerve Tissue
_____________ - surrounds the nerve
_____________ - surrounds the bundle of nerve fibers
_____________ - surrounds the individual nerve fibers

epineurium ; perineurium ; endoneurium

Exocrine glands secrete their products into ______/________

ducts ; cavities

________ glands are __________

Endocrine ; ductless

Merocrine: ________ cells release products this way using ___________

most ; secretory vesicles

Apocrine: Cells are _______________. This method is found in:

pinched off ; mammary glands

Holocrine: ___________ dies and breaks off. Found in ___________ and _________ glands

whole cell ; sweat ; sebaceous

Endocrine glands secrete ____________ into _______________ to circulate in the body and reach target cells

hormones ; blood stream

__________ Has endocrine and exocrine functions


Pancreas exocrine function: produces

pancreatic enzymes (amylase, protease, lipase)

Pancreas endocrine function: produces and secretes

3 hormones (insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin)

_____________ - regulation (decrease) of blood glucose level


When blood glucose is more than ________ mg/dL, _________ is activated and decreases blood glucose levels to normal

120 ; insulin

Normal range of blood glucose = ________ to _______ mg/DL

70 ; 110

_____________ - regulation (increase) of blood glucose level


When blood glucose is lower than ______ to _______ mg/dL, _____________ is activated and increases blood glucose levels to normal

50 ; 100 ; glucagon

Acts as _____________ hormone - ____________ other hormone secretion such as insulin and glucagon ; Decreases/Suppresses __________ hormone secretion

paracrine ; suppresses ; gastric

Tight Junctions:
_____________ passage of molecules through the space between the cells


Contain __________ and _______

cadherins ; keratins

Gap Junctions:
_____________ passage of small molecules through the space between neighboring cells
-Contain ___________ which contain _____________

allow ; Connexon ; 6 connexin

_____% of the body is water


Passive Transport - net movement of molecules across a membrane from _________ to ________ concentration. ___________ use ATP

high ; low ; doesn't

Simple Diffusion
Is not _________ _________
Occurs in a _________ gradient

carrier mediated ; downhill

Facilitated Diffusion:
_________ _________, therefore exhibits stereospecificity, saturation, and competition
Occurs in a _________ gradient

carrier mediated ; downhill

Active Transport - net movement of molecules across a membrane from _________ to _________ concentration. _________ use ATP

low ; high ; does

Primary Transport:
_________ _________
Occurs in a _________ gradient
Examples: _________, _________, _________

Carrier mediated ; uphill ; NaK ; calcium ; proton (pumps)

Secondary Transport:
_________ _________
Occurs in a _________ gradient - Na+ (is usually) transported downhill with another molecule pushed uphill with the _______ use of ATP
Cotransport/Symport - __________ direction across membrane

Carrier mediated ; uphill ; indirect ; same ; opposite

Na K ratio is ____ Na out: ____ K in. Neuromuscular junction: outside stimulus hits neuron, _____ channel opens

3 ; 2 ; Ca

Osmosis - flow of ________ across a semipermeable membrane from ______ solute concentration to _______ solute concentration

H2O ; low ; high

Osmolarity - concentration of osmotically active particles in a solution
_____________ - same osmolarity
_____________ - solution with higher osmolarity
_____________ - solution with lower osmolarity

isosmotic ; hyperosmotic ; hypoosmotic

Osmotic Pressure - increases when solute concentration is _________.
_____________ - high osmotic pressure
_____________ - low osmotic pressure

high ; hyper ; hypo

How does osmotic pressure become isotonic?

when solute concentration is the same

Blood Glucose
Normal range of blood glucose: _____________
_____________ is called hyperglycemia
_____________ is called hypoglycemia

70-110 ; above 120 ; below 50-60

Resting Membrane Potential is ______ mV


Action Potential - property of excitability consisting of _____________, or upstroke, followed by _____________

depolarization ; repolarization

_____________ - makes the membrane less negative
_____________ - makes the membrane more negative

depolarization ; hyper polarization

_____________ - the flow of positive charge into the cell
_____________ - the flow of positive charge out of the cell

inward current (influx) ; Outward current (efflux)

What can block an action potential?

Lidocaine ; Tetrodotoxin (TTx)

Conduction of action potential velocity is increased by:
-______ fiber size

increase ; myelination

List the neurotransmitters:

ACh ; Norepinephrine/Epinephrine ; Dopamine ; Serotonin ; Histamine ; Glutamate ; GABA ; Glycine

ACh needed for

muscle contraction

Degradation of ACh is caused by ________________(______) into _____________ and _____________

Acetylcholinesterase ; AChE ; Acetyl COA ; Choline

ACh Bind to _____________ receptors


ACh inhibitors are _____________ and _____________

neostigmine ; hemicholinium

Norepinephrine & Epinephrine:
-Secreted from __________________
-Norepi binds to _______ & _______ receptors

adrenal medulla ; alpha ; beta

-Released from _____________
-Inhibits _____________

hypothalamus ; prolactin secretion

Low levels of dopamine -> _____________
High levels of dopamine -> _____________

parkinsons ; schizophrenia

Synthetic dopamine to lower prolactin levels = _____________


-Present in high concentrations in the _____________
-Converted to _____________ in the ________ gland

brainstem ; melatonin ; pineal

Present in neurons of the _____________


Four subtypes of glutamate receptors: three are _____________ receptor and one is _____________ receptor

ionotropic ; metabotropic

-_____________ neurotransmitter
-Synthesized from _____________ by _____________ _____________

inhibitory ; glutamate ; glutamate decarboxylase

Two receptors:
-_____________ receptor increases Cl- conductance and site of action of _____________ and _____________
-_____________ receptor increases K+ conductance

GABA alpha ; benzodiazepine ; barbiturate ; GABA beta

-_____________ neurotransmitter found primarily in spinal cord and brain stem
-_____________ Cl- conductance

inhibitory ; increase

Large amounts of ketone bodies =


_____________ - ketone bodies in urine


Precursor is _____________


-Act as vaso___________ or vaso___________
-Can cause ___________ pain during menstruation
-_____________ smooth muscle wall of veins in penis is males
-_____________ in pregnant female by _____________ cervix of uterus
-Harmful to _______

constrictors ; dilators ; abdominal ; constriction/dilation ; increased ; dilation ; temperature

Increase of _____Prostaglandin -> _____________ center -> fever

EZ ; temperature

Enzymes - uses _____________ to form a _____________

substrate ; product

Reduction - ______ electron
Oxidation - _______ electron

gain ; lose

Down Syndrome aka _____________

Trisomy 21

Down syndrome Causes: _____ of mother

age (>40)

down syndrome Signs & Symptoms:
-________ retardation
-______ ________ retardation
-Speech disorder
-Big tongue
-Small head
-_______________ problems
-Congenital eye and ____ problem

mental ; bone growth ; cardiovascular ; ear

down syndrome Treatment:


How to determine probability of fetus contracting Down syndrome: _____ levels of ______ _______ protein in amniotic fluids during 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy.

high ; alpha feto

Klinefelter Syndrome (XXY):
Genotype is _______, but phenotype is ________ because of extra X.

male ; female

__________ enzyme converts testosterone to estrogen


Causes of Klinefelter Syndrome:
-__________ disorder
-Hormonal problem
-Males have overproduction of ___________
-Females have overproduction of ____________
-Deficiency of hormones during intrauterine life in fetus

genetic ; estrogen ; testosterone

Klinefelter Signs & Symptoms:
-Body shape more female, development of breasts
-Has male ___________ ___________ organs, but has uterus and _________

external genitalia ; ovaries ; sexuality

Klinefelter Syndrome affected people can not have normal __________ life


Turner Syndrome (monosomy):
One X is _________


Signs & Symptoms of Turner Syndrome (monosomy):
_____________ retardation
Congenital _____________ disorder
Speech disorder
Learning disorder
May affect CNS related organs - ____ & ____ = cochlear & optic nerve

mental ; heart ; ear ; eyes

Apoptosis is __________ __________ _________
-Signals that induce apoptosis = _____________, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), that activate ___________

programmed cell death ; cytokines ; caspase-3

Abnormal apoptosis:
-Excess apoptosis -> _____________ _____________
-Deficient apoptosis -> _____________ and other autoimmune diseases

Alzheimers disease ; cancer

Cancer - excess cell ________________


Benign - tumor is ___________ and _____________ by a membrane

encapsulated ; surrounded

Malignant - tumor doesn't have a membrane and can ________ spread to other parts


Marfan Syndrome:
-Genetic disorder
-Cause: Mutation in chromosome ______ -> ______-production of elastic fibers
-Signs & Symptoms:
_____________ disorders

15 ; over ; fibrilin 1 ; cardiovascular

Ehlers Danlos Syndrome
Cause: Mutation of gene involved in production of collagen __________ & _________

1 ; 3

Cystic Fibrosis - Mutation to Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR)
-_________ disorder


Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator typically controls Cl- excretion from _____ into the ______

cell ; lumen

Cystic Fibrosis cause: Defect in CFTR -> ______ secretion of Cl- (and Na+) into the lumen -> attracts water, _________, and forms ___________ thus causing formation of __________

over ; WBC ; inflammation ; mucus

Cystic Fibrosis Signs & Symptoms:
-Closure of different lumens due to mucus
-Male: ___________ due to spermatic cord
-Pancreas: Main pancreatic duct close -> ____________ of pancreatic enzymes important in digestion -> deficiency of protein absorption, __

infertility ; deficiency ; carbohydrate ; death ; diarrhea ; dehydration ; imbalance ; abdominal pain ; inflammation ; infection

Edema - _____________ of fluids inside the cell or interstitial space


Edema causes:
-_____________ of capillaries
-_____________ _____________ of lymphatic system
-Deficiency of proteins in blood such as ____________

destruction ; bacterial viral infection ; albumin

_____________ prevents edema, but a deficiency means it can't do it's job.


Diabetes Type I:
-Autoimmune disease
-_____________ are against beta cells in the pancreas
-_____________ destroy beta cells and causes a _____________ of insulin
-_____________ of insulin -> _____ blood glucose level -> hyperglycemia

antibodies ; antibodies ; decrease ; deficiency ; increases

Signs & Symptoms (specifically from hyperglycemia):
-_____________ - excess glucose in blood can destroy the blood vessel's wall
-Deficiency of glucose to neurons can cause _____________
-Excess glucose can destroy _____________ for the kidneys and ______

hyperglycemia ; neuropathy ; nephrons ; filtration

Diabetes type 1 treatment:

insulin replacement

Myasthenia Gravis
presence of antibodies to the ______ receptor


Myasthenia Gravis Signs & Symptoms
Resulting from __________________________ on muscle end plate:
-Skeletal muscle weakness

decrease ACh receptors

Myasthenia Gravis Treatment: AChE inhibitors = _____________


Galactosemia - deficiency of galactose
Inherited _________________ disease
Due of lack of enzyme __________________________

autosomal/recessive ; galactose 1 phosphate uridylyltransferase

Galactosemia Signs & Symptoms:
-_________ failure
-__________ failure
-Mental growth retardation
-_____________ in eyes

kidney ; liver ; cataracts

Marasmus: _____________ deficiency


Marasmus Signs & Symptoms:
-_____ skin
-_____________ because of severe diarrhea

dry ; dehydration

-Accumulation of __________ (or cholesterol) -> _____________ of blood vessel
-Can cause local _________
-Can cause _____________ - accumulation of Ca2+ -> rigid and tough
-Can cause local _____________

lipids/steroids ; destruction ; bleeding ; hypercalcemia ; inflammation

Diabetes Type II:
-_____________ disorder
-Mutation to insulin receptors -> receptor is _____________ to insulin hormone

genetic ; resistant

Diabetes Type II Signs & Symptoms:

same as Type I

Diabetes Type II Treatment: None, but can regulate it by control _________, and exercise. _____________ decreases blood glucose directly

diet ; metformin

1. Which of the following characteristics is shared by simple and facilitated diffusion of glucose?

Occurs down an electrochemical gradient

2. During the upstroke of the nerve action potential

there is net inward current and the cell interior becomes less negative

Solutions A and B are separated by a semipermeable membrane that is permeable to K+, but not to Cl-. Solution A is 100 mM KCl, and solution B is 1 mM KCl.
Which of the following statements about solution A and solution B is true?

K+ will diffuse from solution A to solution B until a membrane potential develops with solution A negative with respect to solution B

The correct temporal sequence for events at the neuromuscular junction is

uptake of Ca2+ into the presynaptic terminal; release of acetylcholine (ACh);
depolarization of the muscle end plate

Which characteristic or component is shared by skeletal muscle and smooth muscle?

Elevation of intracellular [Ca2+] for
excitation-contraction coupling

Repeated stimulation of a skeletal muscle fiber causes a sustained contraction (tetanus).
Accumulation of which solute in intracellular fluid is responsible for the tetanus?


Solutions A and B are separated by a mem- brane that is permeable to Ca2+ and impermeable to Cl-. Solution A contains 10 mM CaCl2, and solution B contains 1 mM CaCl2.
Assuming that 2.3 RT/F = 60 mV, Ca2+ will be at electrochemical equilibrium when

solution A is -30 mV

A 42-year-old man with myasthenia gravis notes increased muscle strength when he is treated with an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. The basis for his improvement is increased

levels of ACh at the muscle end plates

In a hospital error, a 60-year-old woman is infused with large volumes of a solution that causes lysis of her red blood cells (RBCs). The solution was most likely

300 mM urea

10. During a nerve action potential, a stimulus is delivered as indicated by the arrow shown in the following figure. In response to the stimulus, a second action potential

will not occur

11. Solutions A and B are separated by a membrane that is permeable to urea. Solution A is 10 mM urea, and solution B is 5 mM urea. If the concentration of urea in solution A is doubled, the flux of urea across the membrane will


12. A muscle cell has an intracellular [Na+] of 14 mM and an extracellular [Na+ ] of 140 mM. Assuming that 2.3 RT/F = 60 mV, what would the membrane potential be if the muscle cell membrane were permeable only to Na+?

+60 mV

13. At which labeled point on the action potential is the K+ closest to electrochemical equilibrium?


14. What process is responsible for the change in membrane potential that occurs between point 1 and point 3?

Movement of Na+ into the cell

What process is responsible for the change in membrane potential that occurs between point 3 and point 4?

Movement of K+ out of the cell

The velocity of conduction of action potentials along a nerve will be increased by

myelinating the nerve

Solutions A and B are separated by a semi- permeable membrane. Solution A contains
1 mM sucrose and 1 mM urea. Solution B con- tains 1 mM sucrose. The reflection coefficient for sucrose is one and the reflection coefficient for urea is zero.
Which of the

Solution A is hyperosmotic with
respect to solution B, and the solutions
are isotonic

18. Transport of D- and L-glucose proceeds at the same rate down an electrochemical gradient by which of the following processes?

Simple diffusion

Which of the following will double
the permeability of a solute in a lipid bilayer?

Doubling the oil/water partition coeffi-
cient of the solute

A newly developed local anesthetic blocks Na+ channels in nerves.
Which of the following effects on the action potential would it be expected to produce?

Decrease the rate of rise of the upstroke of the action potential

At the muscle end plate, acetylcholine (ACh) causes the opening of

Na+ and K+ channels and depolarization to a value halfway between the Na+ and K+ equilibrium potentials

22. An inhibitory postsynaptic potential

hyperpolarizes the postsynaptic mem- brane by opening Cl- channels

23. Which of the following would occur as a result of the inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase?

Increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration

24. Which of the following temporal sequences is correct for excitation- contraction coupling in skeletal muscle?

Action potential in the muscle mem- brane; depolarization of the T tubules; release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)

25. Which of the following transport process-es is involved if transport of glucose from the intestinal lumen into a small intestinal cell is inhibited by abolishing the usual Na+ gradient across the cell membrane?


26. In skeletal muscle, which of the following events occurs before depolarization of the
T tubules in the mechanism of excitation- contraction coupling?

Depolarization of the sarcolemmal membrane

27. Which of the following is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS)?

? -Aminobutyric acid (GABA)

28. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is used indirectly for which of the following processes?

Absorption of glucose by intestinal epithelial cells

Which of the following causes rigor in skeletal muscle?

A decrease in ATP level

Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons has been implicated in

Parkinson's disease

Assuming complete dissociation of all solutes, which of the following solutions would be hyperosmotic to 1 mM NaCl?

1 mM CaCl2

A new drug is developed that blocks the transporter for H+ secretion in gastric parietal cells. Which of the following transport processes is being inhibited?

Primary active transport

A 56-year-old woman with severe muscle weakness is hospitalized. The only abnormality in her laboratory values is an elevated serum K+ concentration. The ele- vated serum K+ causes muscle weakness because

Na+ channels are closed by depolarization

Tay Sachs

Deficiency of acid hydrolase ; Build up of Ganglioside GM2

Familial hypercholesterolemia Cause

Inherited; lacks cell receptors that bind to cholesterol and bind LDLs. Cholesterol cannot enter the cells and builds up in the blood

Familial hypercholesterolemia Sign/Symptom

Stroke or myocardial infarction

Gaucher's disease Cause

Lack of glucocerebrosidase enzyme causes harmful substances to build up in the liver, spleen, bones, and bone marrow (consists of three main types: 1, 2, 3)
Type 1: most common; bone disease, anemia, enlarged spleen and thrombocytopenia (affects children

Gaucher's disease Sign/Symptom

Bone pain and fractures, enlarged spleen, enlarged liver, lung disease, seizures

Aneuploidy cause

Abnormal number of chromosomes, can be trisomy and monosomy

Down Syndrome sign/symptom

Mental retardation: small head & eyes, learning disorder, big tongue, cardiovascular disorder

Klinefelter syndrome sign/symptom

Genotype: male Phenotype: female
Male could have breasts, uterus, ovaries and small genetalia

Turner syndrome sign/symptom

Mental retardation, cardiovascular retardation, hearing and speech disorder, impairment in eye and hearing development

Alzheimer disease/stroke cause

Too much aptosis (cell death) causes extensive nerve cell loss

Cancer/autoimmune disease cause

Insufficiency of apoptosis

Bladder cancer/acute myelogenous leukemia cause

Oncogenes (mutations of certain regulatory genes)

Marfan syndrome cause

Autosomal dominant genetic disorder; defect in the gene of chromosome 15 (essential for connective tissue formation): fibrilin-1

Marfan syndrome sign/symptom

Long limbs, long thin fingers, tall structure, predisposition to cardiovascular abnormalities (affecting heart, valves and aorta)

Ehler's-Danlos syndrome cause

Rare, genetic disorder; defect in the collagen synthesis (I & III)

Ehler's-Danlos syndrome sign/symptom

Abnormally stretchy skin

Cystic fibrosis cause

Genetic defect; abnormal NaCl water movement- glycoprotein CFTR forms Cl and does not get correctly processed

Cystic fibrosis sign/symptom

Dense mucus, lung congestion, infection and malabsorption of nutrients by the pancreas

Edema cause

Low concentration of plasma proteins

Edema sign/symptom

Excessive accumulation of fluid in the tissues

Hyperglycemia cause

Too much sugar or inadequate insulin in diabetes

Hyperglycemia sign/symptom

Glucose found in urine (glucosuria)

Hypoglycemia cause

Low plasma glucose concentration

Disease-myasthenia gravis cause

Antibodies on the Ach receptors

Disease-myasthenia gravis symptoms

Skeletal muscle weakness and fatigability

Disease-myasthenia gravis treatment

AChE inhibitors

Marasmus cause

Severe protein-energy malnutrition

Marasmus symptoms

Cachexia; dry skin, loose skin folds over, loss of adipose tissue from fat deposits, fretful, irritable, hungry, flaky depigmented skin/hair, peeling

Marasmus treatment

Electrolyte balance and gradual feeding

Lipid disorder cause

Too many fatty substances in blood

Lipid disorder symptoms

High blood cholesterol and triglycerides

Atherosclerosis cause

Fatty material collects along artery walls and thickens to plaque and block them

Atherosclerosis symptoms

Plaque buildup, less flexible and narrow artery, slowed heart blood flow: chest pain (stable angina), shortness of breath, heart attack; can lead to blood clot causing stroke and pulmonary embolism

Ketoacidosis cause

Too many ketone bodies in the blood

Ketoacidosis symptoms

Body's pH is lowered to dangerously acidic levels

Ketonuria cause

Accumulation of ketone bodies in urine, sodium is excreted with them

Ketonuria symptoms

Thirst, frequent urination, dehydration, nausea, vomiting, heavy breathing, pupil dilation, breath odor of fruit (acetone)

Ketonuria treatment

Insulin and intranous fluids to restore blood sugar

Ischemia cause

Inadequate blood flow to an organ, insufficient oxygen delivery rate- increased blood levels of lactic acid

Ischemia symptoms

In the heart, may occur from atherosclerosis leading to blood clot or artery spasm; severe chest and left arm pain

How many chromosomes do we have?


How many somatic chromosomes do we have?


How many sex chromosomes do we have?

2 (X and Y)

Plasma membrane

The outer thin, flexible membrane of the cell which separates the intracellular from extracellular fluid; made up of a double layer of lipids such as phospholipids, cholesterol and glycolipids, within which proteins are embedded


The most abundant lipids in the
plasma membrane; heads are hydrophilic (attached to water); tails are hydrophobic (avoid water)

Integral proteins

The most abundant proteins in the membrane; located inside the cell membrane; act as a receptor for some hormones, such as insulin
Pathology condition: lacking/missing/distraction of integral proteins could be due to genetic disorder in the structure of i

Peripheral proteins

Located between the cell membrane and cytoplasm; cell lining for internal environment of the cell


Short carbohydrate chain located outside the cell; the supporting factor for the cell

What is mitosis?

A cells life cycle

What are the phases of mitosis?

Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, cytokinesis, and telophase


First stage in cell life cycle

G1 (gap 1)

growth begins replication; part of interphase

S phase (synthetic phase)

DNA replication/synthesis

G2 (gap 2)

Enzymes are needed for cell division; centrioles finish replication; cells prepare to divide


Asters, microtubule arrays that extend from the centrosome and chromosomes, are formed; chromatids - each chromosome has two identical chromatic threads which are held together by protein complex, cohesion, and centromeres; kinetochore spindles are attach


Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell to form a metaphase plate


Chromosomes separate


Brief moment when one cell has two nuclei


Cell divison

What is meiosis?

Division of sex chromosomes (XX or XY)

What are the phases of meiosis 1?

Synapsis, crossing over, alignment, disjunction, and cell division

Synapsis (meiosis 1)

Pairing of 46 homologous duplicated chromosomes

Crossing over (meiosis 1)

Large segments of DNA are exhanged

Alignment (meiosis 1)

46 homologous duplicated chromosomes align at the metaphase plate

Disjunction (meiosis 1)

46 homologous duplicated chromosomes separate from each other; centromeres do not split

Cell division (meiosis 1)

Two secondary gametocytes (23 duplicated chromosomes, 2N) are formed

What are the phases of meiosis 2?

Alignment, disjunction, and cell division; does not go through synapsis or crossing over

Alignment (meiosis 2)

23 duplicated chromosomes align at the metaphase plate

Disjunction (meiosis 2)

23 duplicated chromosomes separate to form 23 single chromosomes; centromeres split; if there is any mutation to the gene structure or abnormal disjunction it results in a genetic disorder (down syndrome, turner syndrome, and klinefelter syndrome)

Cell division (meiosis 2)

Four gametes (23 single chromosomes, 1N) are found


Contain 23 single chromosomes (22 autosomes and 1 sex chromosome) and 1N amount of DNA; final step in meiosis

What do you need for contractions of muscles?



Deficiency of calcium (less than 10 mg/dL); no muscle contraction


Too much calcium; muscles always contracting with no relaxation

What do nerve tissues produce?

Neurotransmitters such as ACh, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and serotonin


Surrounds the nerve


Surrounds the bundle of nerve fibers


Surrounds the individual nerve fibers

Exocrine glands

Secrete their products into body ducts/cavities; food breakdown and digestion; sweat glands, pancreatic enzyme, saliva; there are three types of exocrine glands: merocrine, apocrine, and holocrine

What are the three types of exocrine glands?

Merocrine, apocrine, and holocrine


Cells that secrete products by the merocrine method form membrane bound secretory vesicles internal to the cell. These are moved to the apical surface where the vesicles coalesce with the membrane on the apical surface to release the product. Most glands


In those glands that release product by he apocrine method, the apical portions of cells are pinched off and lost during the secretory process. This results in a secretory product that contains a variety of molecular components including those of the memb


Involves death of the cell. The secretory cell is released and as it breaks apart, the contents of the cell become the secretory product; the most complex secretory product; found in some sweat glands and sebaceous glands

Endocrine glands

Secretes endocrine hormone into the blood stream; insulin and glucagon

What are the two functions of the pancreas?

Endocrine and exocrine

Pancreas exocrine function

Produces pancreatic enzymes; amylase (fat), protease (protein), and lipase (lipids)

Pancreas endocrine function

Produces and secretes three hormones; insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin


When blood glucose level is more than 120 mg/dL insulin is activated and decreases the level back to normal


When blood glucose level is lower than 50 - 100 mg/dL glucagon is activated and increased the level back to normal

What is the normal range of blood glucose?

70 - 110 mg/dL


When blood glucose level is above 120 mg/dL; too much sugar or inadequate insulin in diabetes


When blood glucose level is below 50 - 60 mg/dL


When blood glucose level is 300 - 350 mg/dL; glucose in urine


Suppresses other hormone secretion such as insulin, glucagon, and gastric hormone; acts as a paracrine hormone

What is is the resting membrane potential?

-70 mV

Action potential

Property of excitability consisting of depolarization, or upstroke, followed by repolarizaton


Makes the membrane less negative


Makes the membrane more negative

Inward current (influx)

The flow of positive charge into the cell

Outward current (efflux)

The flow of positive charge out of the cell

What can block an action potential?

Lidocaine and tetradotoxin (TTX)

How is the conduction of action potential velocity increased?

Increase in fiber size or myelination

Intracellular fluid

Cells that are inside of the cell; contains collagen, polysaccharides, and integrin

Extracellular fluid

Cells that are outside of the cell; space located between the blood vessel and the cell


Neurotransmitter; degradation of ACh is caused by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) into acetyl-CoA and choline; bind to cholinergic receptors; ACh inhibitors are neostigmine and hemicholinium


Neurotransmitters; secreted from adrenal medulla; norepi binds to alpha and beta receptors


Neurotransmitter; released from hypothalamus; inhibits prolactin secretion; low levels can lead to parkingson's disease; high levels can lead to schizophrenia; bromocriptine (synthetic dopamine) inhibits prolactin production


Neurotransmitter; present in high concentrations in the brain stem, converted to melatonin in the pineal gland


Neurotransmitter; present in neurons of the hypothalamus


Neurotransmitter; four sub types of glutamate receptors: three are ionotropic (can open or close a channel to allow smaller particles to travel in and out of the cell) receptors and one is a metatropic (acts as a secondary messenger; does not have a chann


Inhibitory neurotransmitter; synthesized from glutamate by glutamate decarboxylate; has two receptors: GABA A receptor increases Cl- conductance and site of action of benzodiazepine and barbiturates, GABA B receptor increase K+ conductance


Inhibitory neurotransmitter; found primarily in spinal cord and brain stem; increases Cl- conductance


The smallest particle; can't be cut into smaller particles


Particle with a negative charge


Particle with a positive charge


Particles with no charge

Atomic mass

The sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom

Atomic number

The number of protons in an atom


The major source of energy for the body; composed mostly of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

Carbohydrate metabolism disorder

Causes: enzymes needed to break down sugar is not present (usually due to an inherited disorder)
Signs/symptoms: causes the sugars to build up


High energy yielding molecules (fats and oils) composed mostly of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

Ketone bodies

Three water soluble compounds (acetoacetate, tbeta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone) that are produced as byproducts when fatty acids are broken down for energy; they are used as a source of energy in the heart and brain; large amounts of ketone bodies can re


The ease in which a solute diffuses through a membrane


The cellular region between the nucleus and plasma membrane; contains cytosol


The site of protein production; involved in translation by messenger RNA (mRNA), mRNA has transcription from nucleus then takes it to the cytoplasm, ribosomes translate the information then give the information to lumen of rough endoplasmic reticulum

Rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER)

Involved in protein produciton

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER)

Detoxification of drugs and steroids as well as lipid metabolism


Involved in production of ATP.
Pathology condition: any changes to the mitochondria can cause the cellular function, such as ion pump and lysosomes, to break down


Site of intracellular digestion and they destroy (digest)
deteriorated organelles and substances brought into the cells by vesicles


Breaks down poison such as alcohol and detoxifies drugs

What is the function of the protein hemoglobin?

Transports oxygen to tissues

What are the three types of cytoskeleton?

Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules


Proteins inside the muscle fiber that contracts the muscle

Intermediate filaments

Tough and rigid; gives shape to the cell and protects the cell from external trauma


Involved in mitotic cell division; give the cell its shape and organize the distribution and transport of various organelles within the cytoplasm


The process in which a vesicle inside a cell fuses with a cell membrane and releases its contents to the external environment


The cell membrane changes shape and brings large molecules into the cell; after endocytosis lysosomes digest

What are the three types of endocytosis?

Phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor mediated endocytosis


Cell eating; white blood cells


Cell drinking; small/large intestine and placenta

Receptor mediated endocytosis

Low density lipoprotein (LDL) uptakes and binds cholesterol from bloodstream and carries this cholesterol to the target cell; after binding to receptor cholesterol is released into the cell; after cholesterol enters the cell it is used as a base for hormo

What is the precursor for vitamin D?


What is the precursor of estrogen and testosterone?


What does DNA stand for?

Deoxyribonucleic acid

What does ATP stand for?

Adenosine triphosphate


The result of mutations of certain regulatory genes, called protooncogenes, which normally stimulate or inhibit cell proliferation and development; causes deregulation of cell division which leads to a cancerous state (bladder cancer and acute myelogenous

What is the precursor of steroids?



Any member of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids; can cause abdominal pain during menstruation; constriction/dilation of smooth muscle wall of veins in penis; increased in pregnant female by dilation; harmful to temperature ce


Uses a substrate to form a product


Lose electrons


Gain electrons

What are the four different types of tissues?

Muscle, nervous, epithelial, and connective tissue

Epithelial tissue

Respiratory system: removes bacteria by coughing; sweat glands: increases sweat rate; blood vessels: prevents friction from blood cells and the blood wall

Simple squamous epithelia

Lining of body cavities and capillaries to reduce friction; lining the alveoli to facilitate gas exchange

Simple cuboidal epithelium

Location: glands; lining of the kidney tubules; ducts of glands
Function: secretion and absorption; produces egg cells in female ovary and sperm cells in male testes

Simple columnar epithelium

Location: lining of the stomach and intestines, nose, ears, taste buds; goblet cells (unicellular glands) are found between the columnar epithelial cells of the duodenum
Function: secrete mucus; sensory reception

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Location: ducts of large glands, ciliated variety lines the trachea, most upper respiratory tract
Function: secretion, mucus

Stratified cuboidal epithelia

Location: ducts of sweat glands and the male urethra
Function: protection

Stratified columnar epithelium

Location: small amount in male urethra and in large ducts of some glands
Function: protection, secretion

Stratified squemous epithelium

Location: vagina

Tight junctions

Prevent passage of molecules through the space between the cells

Gap junctions

Allow passage of small molecules through the space between neighboring cells


Contain cadherins and keratin (cytoskeletal filaments)

What percentage of the body is water?


Passive transport

Movement from a higher to lower concentration; does not use ATP

Simple diffusion

Is not carrier mediated; downhill gradient; does not use ATP

Facilitated diffusion

Is carrier mediated and exhibits stereospecificity, saturation, and competition; downhill gradient; does not use ATP

Active transport

Movement from a lower to higher concentration; requires ATP

Primary active transport

Is carrier mediated and exhibits stereospecificity, saturation, and competition; uphill gradient; Na+ and K+ (pump), Ca2+ ATPase (Ca2+ pump), and H+ K+ ATPase (proton pump); requires ATP

Secondary active transport

Is carrier mediated and exhibits stereospecificity, saturation, and competition; uphill gradient; indirect use of ATP: Na+ and glucose is transported downhill with another molecule pushed uphill


Solutes move in the same direction across the membrane; part of secondary active transport


Solutes move in opposite directions across the membrane; part of secondary active transport


Flow of water across a semipermeable membrane from low to high solute concentration


Concentration of osmotically active particles in a solution


Same osmolarity


Solution with a higher osmolarity


Solution with a lower osmolarity

Osmotic pressure

Increases when solute concentration increases


High osmotic pressure

What is the normal range of osmolarity in plasma?

280 - 303 mOsm/kg


Low osmotic pressure


When two solutions have the same osmotic pressure


Abnormal number of chromosomes, can be trisomy and monosomy

Down syndrome (Trisomy 21)

Genetic disorder
Causes: third copy of chromosome 21; mother is pregnant over the age of 40
Signs/symptoms: mental retardation, bone growth retardation, speech disorder, big tongue, small head, cardiovascular problems, congenital eye and ear problems

Klinefelter syndrome (XXY)

Genetic disorder; genotype is male, but phenotype is female
Causes: extra X chromosome
Signs/symptoms: body shape is more female, development of breasts, male external genitalia, uterus and ovaries, males overproduce estrogen, females overproduce testoste

Turner syndrome (monosomy)

Genetic disorder
Causes: one X chromosome is missing (XO)
Signs/symptoms: mental retardation, congenital heart disorder, speech disorder, learning disorder, impairment in eye and ear development


Programmed cell death
Causes: cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which activates caspases 3 that degrade regulatory and structural proteins in the nucleus and cytoplasm
Signs/symptoms: excess apoptosis can lead to alzheimer disease; deficienc


Excess cell proliferation

Benign tumor

Encapsulated and surrounded by a membrane; does not spread


Does not have a membrane and can rapidly spread to other parts of the body

Marfan syndrome

Autosomal dominant genetic disorder
Causes: mutation in chromosome 15; overproduction of fibrillin-1 (essential for the formation of elastic fibers)
Signs/symptoms: long limbs, long thin fingers, tall stature, predisposition to cardiovascular abnormalitie

Ehlers danlos syndrome

Rare genetic disorder
Causes: defect of collagen 1 and 3 which are involved in collagen synthesis
Signs/symptoms: abnormally stretchy skin

Cystic fibrosis

Genetic disorder
Causes: mutation to cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR); abnormal NaCl water movement - CFTR forms Cl and it does not get correctly processed
Signs/symptoms: male: infertility due to spermatic cord, pancreas: infection and mala


Causes: deficiency of album (prevents edema) and plasma proteins, destruction of capillaries, bacterial and viral infection of lymphatic system,
Signs/symptoms: accumulation of fluids inside the cell or interstitial space ("swelling")

Myasthenia gravis

Causes: antibodies on the ACh receptor
Signs/symptoms: skeletal muscle weakness, fatigue
Treatment: AChE inhibitors


Deficiency of galactose
Causes: inherited autosomal recessive trait: affects how sugar galactose is broken down causing build up and abnormal chemicals to form; due to lack of enzyme galactose-1 phosphate uridyl transferase
Signs/symptoms: swollen and inf


Causes: severe protein malnutrition
Signs/symptoms: dry skin (cachexia) lose skin folds over, loss of adipose tissue from fat deposits, fretful, irritable, hungry, diarrhea, dehydration, flaky depigmented skin/hair, peeling skin
Treatment: electrolyte bal


Causes: fatty material collects along artery walls and thickens to plaque and blocks them
Signs/symptoms: plaque buildup, less flexible and narrow artery, slowed heart blood flow; chest pain (stable angina), shortness of breath, heart attack, blood clots

Lipid disorder

Causes: too many fatty substances in the blood
Signs/symptoms: high blood cholesterol and triglycerides


Causes: too many ketone bodies in the blood
Signs/symptoms: body's pH is lowered to dangeriously acidic levels


Causes: accumulation of ketone bodies in urine, sodium is excreted with them
Signs/symptoms: thirsty, frequent urination, dehydration, nausea, vomiting, heavy breathing, pupil dilation, breath odor of fruit (acetone)
Treatment: insulin and intranous fluid


Causes: inadequate blood flow to an organ, insufficient oxygen delivery rate, increased blood levels of lactic acid
Signs/symptoms: heart: may occur from atherosclerosis leading to blood clot or artery spasm, severe chest and left arm pain


Fatal genetic lipid disorder
Causes: deficiency of acid hydrolase and build up of ganglioside GM2
Signs/symptoms: mental retardation, blindness, spastic movements, and death within 1.5 years from birth

Familial hypercholesterolemia

Causes: inherited, lack of cell receptors that bind to cholesterol and bind to LDL's, cholesterol cannot enter the cells and builds up in the blood
Signs/symptoms: stroke or myocardial infarction

Gaucher's disease

Causes: lack of glucocerebrosidase enzyme which causes harmful substances to build up in the liver, spleen, bones and bone marrow (consists of three main types):
Type 1: most common, bone disease, anemia, enlarged spleen and thrombocytopenia (affects chil

Alzheimer disease/stroke

Causes: too much aptosis (cell death) which causes extensive nerve cell loss
Signs/symptoms: loss of memory


cell death

Cancer/autoimmune disease

Cause: insufficiency of aptosis (cell death)

Bladder cancer/acute myelogenous leukemia

Causes: oncogenes (mutations of certain regulatory genes)

Type 1 diabetes

Autoimmune disease
Causes: antibodies destroy beta cells which causes a decrease of insulin, hyperglycemia
Signs/symptoms: hyperglycemia which can destroy the blood vessel's wall, neuropathy (deficiency of glucose to neurons), excess glucose can destroy n

Type 2 diabetes

Genetic disorder
Causes: mutation to insulin receptors which causes them to become resistant to insulin
Signs/symptoms: hyperglycemia which can destroy the blood vessel's wall, neuropathy (deficiency of glucose to neurons), excess glucose can destroy neph

50 year old male has a respiratory problem.
He is: coughing, has hypertension and some abstraction/closure of some blood vessels.
The sign symptoms show that he has risk for stroke and CNS. Sometime ?she feels thirsty and he has frequent urination, as wel


65 year old female
has severe headaches, sleep disorder and sometimes she has anxiety, vomiting and dizziness.
What is your diagnosis?

Over secretion of norepinephrine

25 year old male has some respiratory problems
such as coughing, can't have sexual activity, diarrhea, hypotension, deficiency of protein and he has the sign symptoms for type 1 diabetes.
What is your diagnosis?

Cystic fibrosis

35 year old male has a protein disorder in his GI tract.
His stomach doesn't secrete sufficient acid. At the same time he feels some weakness in his muscle and he can't walk.
What is your diagnosis?

Marasmus & Myasthenia gravis

plasma membrane

These are the features of the _________________________.
flexible lipid bilayer
separates cytosol from extracellular matrix

Phospholipids are arranged in a double layer in the cell membrane,
where the hydrophilic heads of the outer layer of the membrane face the extracellular matrix and the heads of the inner layer face the cytoplasm.
The Hydrophobic tails of both layers face

Phospholipids are amphipathic, meaning they are both hydrophilic and hydrophobic.
What features of a phospholipid allow this behavior and how are these features oriented in the plasma membrane?

Integral proteins are the most common proteins on the surface of the cell membrane and act as receptors, while peripheral proteins face the cytoplasm and associates with filamentous structures.
Integral proteins may be embedded in a part of the lipid bila

What is the difference between Integral and peripheral membrane proteins?

vSNARE proteins on the vesicle membrane surface bind with intracellular membrane-bound tSNARE proteins and allow for the fusion of both membranes in a process called Exocytosis.

Which protein(s) are responsible for allowing vesicles from the Golgi apparatus to fuse to the plasma membrane, and which mechanism is this action a part of?

Gaucher's Type II

A heritable disease causing a deficiency in glucocerebrosidase results in the accumulation of harmful substances in the cells and organ tissue of a 4-month-old infant, who presents with seizures and spasms, motor difficulties, enlarged liver and spleen de


These are the functions or features of the ___________.
it's nuclear envelope is continuous with the lumen of the Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
directs the cell's functions for protein synthesis
contains chromosomes and chromatin composed of histone protei

histone proteins

The regulation of gene transcription and extent of expression is controlled in chromatin by ____, a structure closely associated with the DNA double helix.

abnormal disjunction during Meiosis II

Aneuploidy is a family of conditions involving an abnormal number of chromosomes caused by ________.


The following can accelerate the process of ______.
free radical damage to cells
chemical pollutants
radiation therapy


Benign and malignant tumors are _______, cell masses that divide and multiply abnormally.

smooth & cardiac

_____ & ______ muscle tissues produce involuntary force and contractile movement in organs.


______________ thic?k outer sheath of connective tissue, blood vessels found within it.


_________ loose, thin connective tissue layer that envelopes each individual nerve fiber.


penetrates into the nerve to envelop nerve fiber bundles, is penetrated by blood vessels.

Gap junctions

The cells of myocardial tissue need a constant supply of Ca2+ ions for muscle contractions in the heart.
The structure that allows the flow of Ca2+ in between cells is:


__________ is a secretory mechanism,
found in axillary, pubic and sebaceous exocrine glands,
requires it's cells to be in a constant state of mitotic divisions as it uses the entire cell as it's secretory vesicle and degrades the cell as a component of th

an autosomal dominant defect of chromosome 15; fibrillin-1

Marfan syndrome typically presents with hypertension as a result of cardiomegaly, heart murmur, stretch marks, abnormally long limbs and fingers, and pain surrounding the joints. These conditions are the result of ________, affecting the gene that encodes

interstitial space

the following are molecules are found within the _________.
collagen fibers

Facilitated Diffusion
Active Transport
Simple Diffusion
Passive Transport

The flow of ions or molecules across the cell's plasma membrane down a concentration gradient, without the need for metabolic energy generation, is a type of transport called:

signaling molecule
facilitated diffusion

Insulin acts as a _____, activating intracellular ____ to open channels for glucose to enter the cell in what type of passive transport?

fundus, HCl, to convert pepsinogen into pepsin.

Parietal cells of the ____ secrete ___ into the lumen of the stomach, and what function does it serve?

primary needs direct input of ATP while secondary is indirectly energized by membrane Na+ gradient.

What is the difference between primary and secondary active transport?

Hyperglycemia, where glucose concentration of the blood and filtrate exceeds transport maximum

Glycosuria is a condition characterized by glucose within the urine as a result of:

Edema, caused by an Albumin deficiency in the blood
Edema, caused by co?ngenital disorder or local injury to capillaries

An accumulation of fluid inside the cell and/or interstitial space is called ____, and can be caused by:


Match the ion with its equilibrium potential:
____ 45+-65+mv


Match the ion with its equilibrium potential:
_____ 120+ mv


Match the ion with its equilibrium potential:
_____ 85- m

Acetylcholinesterase, acetyl-CoA and choline

In the neuro-muscular junction _____ is an enzyme, which degrades Acetylcholine into:

dopamine hypothesis

A deficiency of _____ secretion from the brain stem's "black substance" may result in muscular tremors, difficulties with speech, disordered movement of limbs and digits, and the degeneration of neurons with D2 receptors.

ketoacidosis, where the body's pH reaches dangerously acidic levels

Many diet fads such as juice cleansing or liquid diets cause individuals to fast from typical substance- based diets. Undergoing a diet like this over a long period of time may produce excessive ketone bodies that accumulate, resulting in:

degradation of galactose; Galactosemia

Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase is an enzyme responsible for _____, and a deficiency in this enzyme results in intense dehydration, diarrhea, and a deficiency in electrolytes, symptoms of ______.

Cholesterol, testosterone & androgen
Cholesterol, Estrogen & Progesterone

____ is the precursor for Steroid production, which is the building block of:

enzyme catalysts

the following statements are true of ___________:
they are a class of proteins
they increase the rate of biological reactions
they are not changed after a reaction


_________ is the mechanism of glucose-6-phosphate formation from glycogen via the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase in the liver.

decreased blood flow to the heart, Myocardial Ischemia

Obstruction of blood flow by atherosclerosis, clots, or arterial spasms may cause intense pain radiating in the chest and down the left arm, shortness of breath, and rapid heart rate. This is due to ______, and is a condition referred to as _____.

Oxidative Phosphorylation

the following statements are true of ___________:
electrons are carried by coenzymes NADH & FADH
energy generated is taken up by ATP synthase
utilizes a proton pump