What is the function of glycocalyx?
Functions in cell-to-cell recognition
Where does the transition from glucose-6-phosphate into free glucose take place?
How does oral rehydration therapy work?
Cotransport of Na+ and glucose
What structure is continuous with the rough endoplasmic reticulum?
What is the function of an integral protein?
Could act as a receptor
How does water diffuse across a cellular membrane?
Simple diffusion (osmosis)
How would insulin be absorbed into a cell?
Receptor mediated endocytosis
What is the etiology of familial hypercholesterolemia?
Cells lack the receptors that bind to cholesterol binding LDLs
What is the etiology of marfan syndrome?
Defect of a gene in chromosome 15
NOT a function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum:
It has no ribosomes and is involved in protein production
Gaucher's disease deals with the lack of
Which step of the cell life cycle is not present in interphase?
Which of the following is absent in Meiosis II?
A patient walks in and you diagnose him with Klinefelter syndrome. How would you explain this to the patient?
Disjunction of an X chromosome
A gamete contains
23 single chromosome and 1N amount of DNA
The mitochondrial theory of aging involves a decrease of energy production by radical-damaged mitochondria.
Which of the following vitamins act as antioxidants and prevent excessive production of free radicals?
Vitamin C and E
Programmed cell death contributes to many diseases. The disease that results from extensive nerve cell loss is:
NOT a characteristic of malignant neoplasm
Is a local mass, remained encapsulated, compacted, grows slowly
NOT a characteristics are correct for phagocytosis
Which of the following epithelial tissues allows the bladder to distend?
Which of the following methods of exocrine secretion is used in the mammary glands?
NOT a characteristics of gap junctions
Connected by 7 hollow cylinders of protein
Fibrilin-1, a glycoprotein, is linked to the disorder Marfan syndrome.
What is the purpose of fibrilin?
Fibrilin is essential for the formation of the elastic fibers found in connective tissue
A patient walks in with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
Which of the following collagens are defected?
Permeability of the cell membrane increases with increasing
Oil/water partition coefficient
NOT a characteristics of Type I Diabetes
Gastric parietal cell transports H+ into the stomach by
Primary Active Transport
NOT a characteristic of a tight junction
They are located near the basal surface of the cell
What is an atomic number?
Number of protons
What is a neutralization reaction?
Equal number of hydrogen and hydroxide ions
Four types of tissue:
Muscle ; Epithelial ; Nervous ; Connective (MENC)
Three types of muscle:
Skeletal ; Smooth ; Cardiac
Epithelial cells shape classifications:
Squamous ; Cuboidal ; Columnar
Epithelial classification # of cell layers:
Simple ; Stratified ; Pseudostratified
Simple squamous is found where?
alveoli (to facilitate gas exchange);
body cavities ;
capillaries (to reduce friction)
Function of simple cuboidal epithelium?
Secretion and absorption
Location of simple cuboidal epithelium:
germinal epithelium ; kidney tubules ; ducts of the glands ; gonads ; reproductive tract
(The german kids ducks go reproduce)
Location of simple columnar epithelium:
lining of stomach and intestines ; nose ; ears ; taste buds
Function of simple columnar epithelium:
Secrete mucus or slime (GI TRACT)
Function of pseudostratified columnar epithelium:
Secretion ; mucus ; protection
Location of pseudostratified columnar epithelium:
Ducts of large glands ; upper respiratory tract ; trachea (ciliated kind)
Function of Stratified Cuboidal epithelia:
Location of stratified cuboidal epithelia:
ducts of sweat glands ; male urethra
Function of stratified columnar epithelium:
Protection ; secretion
Location of stratified columnar epithelium:
male urethra ; large ducts of some glands
Location of stratified squamous epithelium:
Location of transitional epithelium:
urinary bladder ; urethra ; ureter
Function of transitional epithelium:
accelerates urine flow in renal system
____ chromosomes total
_____ are somatic
_____ are sex chromosomes
46 ; 44 ; 2
_____________ is the first stage in cell life cycle
G1 - ___________ then begins replication
S Phase - DNA _____________
G2 - ___________ needed for cell division -> finish _________ -> cells get ready to divide
interphase ; growth ; replication/synthesis ; enzymes ; replication
Prophase - _____________ are formed.
_____________ - each chromosome has 2 identical chromatin threads
Protein complex, _____________, and centromeres hold the chromatids together
_____________ - attached to the chromosomes
Asters and chromosomes ; chromatids ; cohesion ; Kinetochores
Metaphase - chromosomes _____________
Anaphase - chromosomes _____________
Line up ; separate
_____________ - brief moment when one cell may have two nuclei
Telophase - _____ ___________
-Begins with _________
synapsis ; disjunction
-No _____________ nor _____________
-Starts with ________
-Gametes = _______ step in meiotic cell division
synapses ; crossing over ; alignment ; disjunction ; final
Disjunction - if there is any mutation to the gene structure or abnormal disjunction -> ___________________
For contraction of muscles, you need _________
_____calcemia - deficiency of Calcium (less than __ mg/dL), no muscle contraction
_____calcemia - muscle always contracting
Hypo ; 10 ; Hyper
Blood _________ can affect muscle contraction
In heart contractility of myocardium, ____________ decreases
Produce neurotransmitters such as ______________, ______________, __________
Acetyl Choline (ACh) ; Norepinephrine/Epinephrine ; serotonin
_____________ - surrounds the nerve
_____________ - surrounds the bundle of nerve fibers
_____________ - surrounds the individual nerve fibers
epineurium ; perineurium ; endoneurium
Exocrine glands secrete their products into ______/________
ducts ; cavities
________ glands are __________
Endocrine ; ductless
Merocrine: ________ cells release products this way using ___________
most ; secretory vesicles
Apocrine: Cells are _______________. This method is found in:
pinched off ; mammary glands
Holocrine: ___________ dies and breaks off. Found in ___________ and _________ glands
whole cell ; sweat ; sebaceous
Endocrine glands secrete ____________ into _______________ to circulate in the body and reach target cells
hormones ; blood stream
__________ Has endocrine and exocrine functions
Pancreas exocrine function: produces
pancreatic enzymes (amylase, protease, lipase)
Pancreas endocrine function: produces and secretes
3 hormones (insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin)
_____________ - regulation (decrease) of blood glucose level
When blood glucose is more than ________ mg/dL, _________ is activated and decreases blood glucose levels to normal
120 ; insulin
Normal range of blood glucose = ________ to _______ mg/DL
70 ; 110
_____________ - regulation (increase) of blood glucose level
When blood glucose is lower than ______ to _______ mg/dL, _____________ is activated and increases blood glucose levels to normal
50 ; 100 ; glucagon
Acts as _____________ hormone - ____________ other hormone secretion such as insulin and glucagon ; Decreases/Suppresses __________ hormone secretion
paracrine ; suppresses ; gastric
_____________ passage of molecules through the space between the cells
Contain __________ and _______
cadherins ; keratins
_____________ passage of small molecules through the space between neighboring cells
-Contain ___________ which contain _____________
allow ; Connexon ; 6 connexin
_____% of the body is water
Passive Transport - net movement of molecules across a membrane from _________ to ________ concentration. ___________ use ATP
high ; low ; doesn't
Is not _________ _________
Occurs in a _________ gradient
carrier mediated ; downhill
_________ _________, therefore exhibits stereospecificity, saturation, and competition
Occurs in a _________ gradient
carrier mediated ; downhill
Active Transport - net movement of molecules across a membrane from _________ to _________ concentration. _________ use ATP
low ; high ; does
Occurs in a _________ gradient
Examples: _________, _________, _________
Carrier mediated ; uphill ; NaK ; calcium ; proton (pumps)
Occurs in a _________ gradient - Na+ (is usually) transported downhill with another molecule pushed uphill with the _______ use of ATP
Cotransport/Symport - __________ direction across membrane
Carrier mediated ; uphill ; indirect ; same ; opposite
Na K ratio is ____ Na out: ____ K in. Neuromuscular junction: outside stimulus hits neuron, _____ channel opens
3 ; 2 ; Ca
Osmosis - flow of ________ across a semipermeable membrane from ______ solute concentration to _______ solute concentration
H2O ; low ; high
Osmolarity - concentration of osmotically active particles in a solution
_____________ - same osmolarity
_____________ - solution with higher osmolarity
_____________ - solution with lower osmolarity
isosmotic ; hyperosmotic ; hypoosmotic
Osmotic Pressure - increases when solute concentration is _________.
_____________ - high osmotic pressure
_____________ - low osmotic pressure
high ; hyper ; hypo
How does osmotic pressure become isotonic?
when solute concentration is the same
Normal range of blood glucose: _____________
_____________ is called hyperglycemia
_____________ is called hypoglycemia
70-110 ; above 120 ; below 50-60
Resting Membrane Potential is ______ mV
Action Potential - property of excitability consisting of _____________, or upstroke, followed by _____________
depolarization ; repolarization
_____________ - makes the membrane less negative
_____________ - makes the membrane more negative
depolarization ; hyper polarization
_____________ - the flow of positive charge into the cell
_____________ - the flow of positive charge out of the cell
inward current (influx) ; Outward current (efflux)
What can block an action potential?
Lidocaine ; Tetrodotoxin (TTx)
Conduction of action potential velocity is increased by:
-______ fiber size
increase ; myelination
List the neurotransmitters:
ACh ; Norepinephrine/Epinephrine ; Dopamine ; Serotonin ; Histamine ; Glutamate ; GABA ; Glycine
ACh needed for
Degradation of ACh is caused by ________________(______) into _____________ and _____________
Acetylcholinesterase ; AChE ; Acetyl COA ; Choline
ACh Bind to _____________ receptors
ACh inhibitors are _____________ and _____________
neostigmine ; hemicholinium
Norepinephrine & Epinephrine:
-Secreted from __________________
-Norepi binds to _______ & _______ receptors
adrenal medulla ; alpha ; beta
-Released from _____________
hypothalamus ; prolactin secretion
Low levels of dopamine -> _____________
High levels of dopamine -> _____________
parkinsons ; schizophrenia
Synthetic dopamine to lower prolactin levels = _____________
-Present in high concentrations in the _____________
-Converted to _____________ in the ________ gland
brainstem ; melatonin ; pineal
Present in neurons of the _____________
Four subtypes of glutamate receptors: three are _____________ receptor and one is _____________ receptor
ionotropic ; metabotropic
-Synthesized from _____________ by _____________ _____________
inhibitory ; glutamate ; glutamate decarboxylase
-_____________ receptor increases Cl- conductance and site of action of _____________ and _____________
-_____________ receptor increases K+ conductance
GABA alpha ; benzodiazepine ; barbiturate ; GABA beta
-_____________ neurotransmitter found primarily in spinal cord and brain stem
-_____________ Cl- conductance
inhibitory ; increase
Large amounts of ketone bodies =
_____________ - ketone bodies in urine
Precursor is _____________
-Act as vaso___________ or vaso___________
-Can cause ___________ pain during menstruation
-_____________ smooth muscle wall of veins in penis is males
-_____________ in pregnant female by _____________ cervix of uterus
-Harmful to _______
constrictors ; dilators ; abdominal ; constriction/dilation ; increased ; dilation ; temperature
Increase of _____Prostaglandin -> _____________ center -> fever
EZ ; temperature
Enzymes - uses _____________ to form a _____________
substrate ; product
Reduction - ______ electron
Oxidation - _______ electron
gain ; lose
Down Syndrome aka _____________
Down syndrome Causes: _____ of mother
down syndrome Signs & Symptoms:
-______ ________ retardation
-Congenital eye and ____ problem
mental ; bone growth ; cardiovascular ; ear
down syndrome Treatment:
How to determine probability of fetus contracting Down syndrome: _____ levels of ______ _______ protein in amniotic fluids during 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy.
high ; alpha feto
Klinefelter Syndrome (XXY):
Genotype is _______, but phenotype is ________ because of extra X.
male ; female
__________ enzyme converts testosterone to estrogen
Causes of Klinefelter Syndrome:
-Males have overproduction of ___________
-Females have overproduction of ____________
-Deficiency of hormones during intrauterine life in fetus
genetic ; estrogen ; testosterone
Klinefelter Signs & Symptoms:
-Body shape more female, development of breasts
-Has male ___________ ___________ organs, but has uterus and _________
external genitalia ; ovaries ; sexuality
Klinefelter Syndrome affected people can not have normal __________ life
Turner Syndrome (monosomy):
One X is _________
Signs & Symptoms of Turner Syndrome (monosomy):
Congenital _____________ disorder
May affect CNS related organs - ____ & ____ = cochlear & optic nerve
mental ; heart ; ear ; eyes
Apoptosis is __________ __________ _________
-Signals that induce apoptosis = _____________, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), that activate ___________
programmed cell death ; cytokines ; caspase-3
-Excess apoptosis -> _____________ _____________
-Deficient apoptosis -> _____________ and other autoimmune diseases
Alzheimers disease ; cancer
Cancer - excess cell ________________
Benign - tumor is ___________ and _____________ by a membrane
encapsulated ; surrounded
Malignant - tumor doesn't have a membrane and can ________ spread to other parts
-Cause: Mutation in chromosome ______ -> ______-production of elastic fibers
-Signs & Symptoms:
15 ; over ; fibrilin 1 ; cardiovascular
Ehlers Danlos Syndrome
Cause: Mutation of gene involved in production of collagen __________ & _________
1 ; 3
Cystic Fibrosis - Mutation to Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR)
Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator typically controls Cl- excretion from _____ into the ______
cell ; lumen
Cystic Fibrosis cause: Defect in CFTR -> ______ secretion of Cl- (and Na+) into the lumen -> attracts water, _________, and forms ___________ thus causing formation of __________
over ; WBC ; inflammation ; mucus
Cystic Fibrosis Signs & Symptoms:
-Closure of different lumens due to mucus
-Male: ___________ due to spermatic cord
-Pancreas: Main pancreatic duct close -> ____________ of pancreatic enzymes important in digestion -> deficiency of protein absorption, __
infertility ; deficiency ; carbohydrate ; death ; diarrhea ; dehydration ; imbalance ; abdominal pain ; inflammation ; infection
Edema - _____________ of fluids inside the cell or interstitial space
-_____________ of capillaries
-_____________ _____________ of lymphatic system
-Deficiency of proteins in blood such as ____________
destruction ; bacterial viral infection ; albumin
_____________ prevents edema, but a deficiency means it can't do it's job.
Diabetes Type I:
-_____________ are against beta cells in the pancreas
-_____________ destroy beta cells and causes a _____________ of insulin
-_____________ of insulin -> _____ blood glucose level -> hyperglycemia
antibodies ; antibodies ; decrease ; deficiency ; increases
Signs & Symptoms (specifically from hyperglycemia):
-_____________ - excess glucose in blood can destroy the blood vessel's wall
-Deficiency of glucose to neurons can cause _____________
-Excess glucose can destroy _____________ for the kidneys and ______
hyperglycemia ; neuropathy ; nephrons ; filtration
Diabetes type 1 treatment:
presence of antibodies to the ______ receptor
Myasthenia Gravis Signs & Symptoms
Resulting from __________________________ on muscle end plate:
-Skeletal muscle weakness
decrease ACh receptors
Myasthenia Gravis Treatment: AChE inhibitors = _____________
Galactosemia - deficiency of galactose
Inherited _________________ disease
Due of lack of enzyme __________________________
autosomal/recessive ; galactose 1 phosphate uridylyltransferase
Galactosemia Signs & Symptoms:
-Mental growth retardation
-_____________ in eyes
kidney ; liver ; cataracts
Marasmus: _____________ deficiency
Marasmus Signs & Symptoms:
-_____________ because of severe diarrhea
dry ; dehydration
-Accumulation of __________ (or cholesterol) -> _____________ of blood vessel
-Can cause local _________
-Can cause _____________ - accumulation of Ca2+ -> rigid and tough
-Can cause local _____________
lipids/steroids ; destruction ; bleeding ; hypercalcemia ; inflammation
Diabetes Type II:
-Mutation to insulin receptors -> receptor is _____________ to insulin hormone
genetic ; resistant
Diabetes Type II Signs & Symptoms:
same as Type I
Diabetes Type II Treatment: None, but can regulate it by control _________, and exercise. _____________ decreases blood glucose directly
diet ; metformin
1. Which of the following characteristics is shared by simple and facilitated diffusion of glucose?
Occurs down an electrochemical gradient
2. During the upstroke of the nerve action potential
there is net inward current and the cell interior becomes less negative
Solutions A and B are separated by a semipermeable membrane that is permeable to K+, but not to Cl-. Solution A is 100 mM KCl, and solution B is 1 mM KCl.
Which of the following statements about solution A and solution B is true?
K+ will diffuse from solution A to solution B until a membrane potential develops with solution A negative with respect to solution B
The correct temporal sequence for events at the neuromuscular junction is
uptake of Ca2+ into the presynaptic terminal; release of acetylcholine (ACh);
depolarization of the muscle end plate
Which characteristic or component is shared by skeletal muscle and smooth muscle?
Elevation of intracellular [Ca2+] for
Repeated stimulation of a skeletal muscle fiber causes a sustained contraction (tetanus).
Accumulation of which solute in intracellular fluid is responsible for the tetanus?
Solutions A and B are separated by a mem- brane that is permeable to Ca2+ and impermeable to Cl-. Solution A contains 10 mM CaCl2, and solution B contains 1 mM CaCl2.
Assuming that 2.3 RT/F = 60 mV, Ca2+ will be at electrochemical equilibrium when
solution A is -30 mV
A 42-year-old man with myasthenia gravis notes increased muscle strength when he is treated with an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. The basis for his improvement is increased
levels of ACh at the muscle end plates
In a hospital error, a 60-year-old woman is infused with large volumes of a solution that causes lysis of her red blood cells (RBCs). The solution was most likely
300 mM urea
10. During a nerve action potential, a stimulus is delivered as indicated by the arrow shown in the following figure. In response to the stimulus, a second action potential
will not occur
11. Solutions A and B are separated by a membrane that is permeable to urea. Solution A is 10 mM urea, and solution B is 5 mM urea. If the concentration of urea in solution A is doubled, the flux of urea across the membrane will
12. A muscle cell has an intracellular [Na+] of 14 mM and an extracellular [Na+ ] of 140 mM. Assuming that 2.3 RT/F = 60 mV, what would the membrane potential be if the muscle cell membrane were permeable only to Na+?
13. At which labeled point on the action potential is the K+ closest to electrochemical equilibrium?
14. What process is responsible for the change in membrane potential that occurs between point 1 and point 3?
Movement of Na+ into the cell
What process is responsible for the change in membrane potential that occurs between point 3 and point 4?
Movement of K+ out of the cell
The velocity of conduction of action potentials along a nerve will be increased by
myelinating the nerve
Solutions A and B are separated by a semi- permeable membrane. Solution A contains
1 mM sucrose and 1 mM urea. Solution B con- tains 1 mM sucrose. The reflection coefficient for sucrose is one and the reflection coefficient for urea is zero.
Which of the
Solution A is hyperosmotic with
respect to solution B, and the solutions
18. Transport of D- and L-glucose proceeds at the same rate down an electrochemical gradient by which of the following processes?
Which of the following will double
the permeability of a solute in a lipid bilayer?
Doubling the oil/water partition coeffi-
cient of the solute
A newly developed local anesthetic blocks Na+ channels in nerves.
Which of the following effects on the action potential would it be expected to produce?
Decrease the rate of rise of the upstroke of the action potential
At the muscle end plate, acetylcholine (ACh) causes the opening of
Na+ and K+ channels and depolarization to a value halfway between the Na+ and K+ equilibrium potentials
22. An inhibitory postsynaptic potential
hyperpolarizes the postsynaptic mem- brane by opening Cl- channels
23. Which of the following would occur as a result of the inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase?
Increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration
24. Which of the following temporal sequences is correct for excitation- contraction coupling in skeletal muscle?
Action potential in the muscle mem- brane; depolarization of the T tubules; release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)
25. Which of the following transport process-es is involved if transport of glucose from the intestinal lumen into a small intestinal cell is inhibited by abolishing the usual Na+ gradient across the cell membrane?
26. In skeletal muscle, which of the following events occurs before depolarization of the
T tubules in the mechanism of excitation- contraction coupling?
Depolarization of the sarcolemmal membrane
27. Which of the following is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS)?
? -Aminobutyric acid (GABA)
28. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is used indirectly for which of the following processes?
Absorption of glucose by intestinal epithelial cells
Which of the following causes rigor in skeletal muscle?
A decrease in ATP level
Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons has been implicated in
Assuming complete dissociation of all solutes, which of the following solutions would be hyperosmotic to 1 mM NaCl?
1 mM CaCl2
A new drug is developed that blocks the transporter for H+ secretion in gastric parietal cells. Which of the following transport processes is being inhibited?
Primary active transport
A 56-year-old woman with severe muscle weakness is hospitalized. The only abnormality in her laboratory values is an elevated serum K+ concentration. The ele- vated serum K+ causes muscle weakness because
Na+ channels are closed by depolarization
Deficiency of acid hydrolase ; Build up of Ganglioside GM2
Familial hypercholesterolemia Cause
Inherited; lacks cell receptors that bind to cholesterol and bind LDLs. Cholesterol cannot enter the cells and builds up in the blood
Familial hypercholesterolemia Sign/Symptom
Stroke or myocardial infarction
Gaucher's disease Cause
Lack of glucocerebrosidase enzyme causes harmful substances to build up in the liver, spleen, bones, and bone marrow (consists of three main types: 1, 2, 3)
Type 1: most common; bone disease, anemia, enlarged spleen and thrombocytopenia (affects children
Gaucher's disease Sign/Symptom
Bone pain and fractures, enlarged spleen, enlarged liver, lung disease, seizures
Abnormal number of chromosomes, can be trisomy and monosomy
Down Syndrome sign/symptom
Mental retardation: small head & eyes, learning disorder, big tongue, cardiovascular disorder
Klinefelter syndrome sign/symptom
Genotype: male Phenotype: female
Male could have breasts, uterus, ovaries and small genetalia
Turner syndrome sign/symptom
Mental retardation, cardiovascular retardation, hearing and speech disorder, impairment in eye and hearing development
Alzheimer disease/stroke cause
Too much aptosis (cell death) causes extensive nerve cell loss
Cancer/autoimmune disease cause
Insufficiency of apoptosis
Bladder cancer/acute myelogenous leukemia cause
Oncogenes (mutations of certain regulatory genes)
Marfan syndrome cause
Autosomal dominant genetic disorder; defect in the gene of chromosome 15 (essential for connective tissue formation): fibrilin-1
Marfan syndrome sign/symptom
Long limbs, long thin fingers, tall structure, predisposition to cardiovascular abnormalities (affecting heart, valves and aorta)
Ehler's-Danlos syndrome cause
Rare, genetic disorder; defect in the collagen synthesis (I & III)
Ehler's-Danlos syndrome sign/symptom
Abnormally stretchy skin
Cystic fibrosis cause
Genetic defect; abnormal NaCl water movement- glycoprotein CFTR forms Cl and does not get correctly processed
Cystic fibrosis sign/symptom
Dense mucus, lung congestion, infection and malabsorption of nutrients by the pancreas
Low concentration of plasma proteins
Excessive accumulation of fluid in the tissues
Too much sugar or inadequate insulin in diabetes
Glucose found in urine (glucosuria)
Low plasma glucose concentration
Disease-myasthenia gravis cause
Antibodies on the Ach receptors
Disease-myasthenia gravis symptoms
Skeletal muscle weakness and fatigability
Disease-myasthenia gravis treatment
Severe protein-energy malnutrition
Cachexia; dry skin, loose skin folds over, loss of adipose tissue from fat deposits, fretful, irritable, hungry, flaky depigmented skin/hair, peeling
Electrolyte balance and gradual feeding
Lipid disorder cause
Too many fatty substances in blood
Lipid disorder symptoms
High blood cholesterol and triglycerides
Fatty material collects along artery walls and thickens to plaque and block them
Plaque buildup, less flexible and narrow artery, slowed heart blood flow: chest pain (stable angina), shortness of breath, heart attack; can lead to blood clot causing stroke and pulmonary embolism
Too many ketone bodies in the blood
Body's pH is lowered to dangerously acidic levels
Accumulation of ketone bodies in urine, sodium is excreted with them
Thirst, frequent urination, dehydration, nausea, vomiting, heavy breathing, pupil dilation, breath odor of fruit (acetone)
Insulin and intranous fluids to restore blood sugar
Inadequate blood flow to an organ, insufficient oxygen delivery rate- increased blood levels of lactic acid
In the heart, may occur from atherosclerosis leading to blood clot or artery spasm; severe chest and left arm pain
How many chromosomes do we have?
How many somatic chromosomes do we have?
How many sex chromosomes do we have?
2 (X and Y)
The outer thin, flexible membrane of the cell which separates the intracellular from extracellular fluid; made up of a double layer of lipids such as phospholipids, cholesterol and glycolipids, within which proteins are embedded
The most abundant lipids in the
plasma membrane; heads are hydrophilic (attached to water); tails are hydrophobic (avoid water)
The most abundant proteins in the membrane; located inside the cell membrane; act as a receptor for some hormones, such as insulin
Pathology condition: lacking/missing/distraction of integral proteins could be due to genetic disorder in the structure of i
Located between the cell membrane and cytoplasm; cell lining for internal environment of the cell
Short carbohydrate chain located outside the cell; the supporting factor for the cell
What is mitosis?
A cells life cycle
What are the phases of mitosis?
Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, cytokinesis, and telophase
First stage in cell life cycle
G1 (gap 1)
growth begins replication; part of interphase
S phase (synthetic phase)
G2 (gap 2)
Enzymes are needed for cell division; centrioles finish replication; cells prepare to divide
Asters, microtubule arrays that extend from the centrosome and chromosomes, are formed; chromatids - each chromosome has two identical chromatic threads which are held together by protein complex, cohesion, and centromeres; kinetochore spindles are attach
Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell to form a metaphase plate
Brief moment when one cell has two nuclei
What is meiosis?
Division of sex chromosomes (XX or XY)
What are the phases of meiosis 1?
Synapsis, crossing over, alignment, disjunction, and cell division
Synapsis (meiosis 1)
Pairing of 46 homologous duplicated chromosomes
Crossing over (meiosis 1)
Large segments of DNA are exhanged
Alignment (meiosis 1)
46 homologous duplicated chromosomes align at the metaphase plate
Disjunction (meiosis 1)
46 homologous duplicated chromosomes separate from each other; centromeres do not split
Cell division (meiosis 1)
Two secondary gametocytes (23 duplicated chromosomes, 2N) are formed
What are the phases of meiosis 2?
Alignment, disjunction, and cell division; does not go through synapsis or crossing over
Alignment (meiosis 2)
23 duplicated chromosomes align at the metaphase plate
Disjunction (meiosis 2)
23 duplicated chromosomes separate to form 23 single chromosomes; centromeres split; if there is any mutation to the gene structure or abnormal disjunction it results in a genetic disorder (down syndrome, turner syndrome, and klinefelter syndrome)
Cell division (meiosis 2)
Four gametes (23 single chromosomes, 1N) are found
Contain 23 single chromosomes (22 autosomes and 1 sex chromosome) and 1N amount of DNA; final step in meiosis
What do you need for contractions of muscles?
Deficiency of calcium (less than 10 mg/dL); no muscle contraction
Too much calcium; muscles always contracting with no relaxation
What do nerve tissues produce?
Neurotransmitters such as ACh, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and serotonin
Surrounds the nerve
Surrounds the bundle of nerve fibers
Surrounds the individual nerve fibers
Secrete their products into body ducts/cavities; food breakdown and digestion; sweat glands, pancreatic enzyme, saliva; there are three types of exocrine glands: merocrine, apocrine, and holocrine
What are the three types of exocrine glands?
Merocrine, apocrine, and holocrine
Cells that secrete products by the merocrine method form membrane bound secretory vesicles internal to the cell. These are moved to the apical surface where the vesicles coalesce with the membrane on the apical surface to release the product. Most glands
In those glands that release product by he apocrine method, the apical portions of cells are pinched off and lost during the secretory process. This results in a secretory product that contains a variety of molecular components including those of the memb
Involves death of the cell. The secretory cell is released and as it breaks apart, the contents of the cell become the secretory product; the most complex secretory product; found in some sweat glands and sebaceous glands
Secretes endocrine hormone into the blood stream; insulin and glucagon
What are the two functions of the pancreas?
Endocrine and exocrine
Pancreas exocrine function
Produces pancreatic enzymes; amylase (fat), protease (protein), and lipase (lipids)
Pancreas endocrine function
Produces and secretes three hormones; insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin
When blood glucose level is more than 120 mg/dL insulin is activated and decreases the level back to normal
When blood glucose level is lower than 50 - 100 mg/dL glucagon is activated and increased the level back to normal
What is the normal range of blood glucose?
70 - 110 mg/dL
When blood glucose level is above 120 mg/dL; too much sugar or inadequate insulin in diabetes
When blood glucose level is below 50 - 60 mg/dL
When blood glucose level is 300 - 350 mg/dL; glucose in urine
Suppresses other hormone secretion such as insulin, glucagon, and gastric hormone; acts as a paracrine hormone
What is is the resting membrane potential?
Property of excitability consisting of depolarization, or upstroke, followed by repolarizaton
Makes the membrane less negative
Makes the membrane more negative
Inward current (influx)
The flow of positive charge into the cell
Outward current (efflux)
The flow of positive charge out of the cell
What can block an action potential?
Lidocaine and tetradotoxin (TTX)
How is the conduction of action potential velocity increased?
Increase in fiber size or myelination
Cells that are inside of the cell; contains collagen, polysaccharides, and integrin
Cells that are outside of the cell; space located between the blood vessel and the cell
Neurotransmitter; degradation of ACh is caused by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) into acetyl-CoA and choline; bind to cholinergic receptors; ACh inhibitors are neostigmine and hemicholinium
Neurotransmitters; secreted from adrenal medulla; norepi binds to alpha and beta receptors
Neurotransmitter; released from hypothalamus; inhibits prolactin secretion; low levels can lead to parkingson's disease; high levels can lead to schizophrenia; bromocriptine (synthetic dopamine) inhibits prolactin production
Neurotransmitter; present in high concentrations in the brain stem, converted to melatonin in the pineal gland
Neurotransmitter; present in neurons of the hypothalamus
Neurotransmitter; four sub types of glutamate receptors: three are ionotropic (can open or close a channel to allow smaller particles to travel in and out of the cell) receptors and one is a metatropic (acts as a secondary messenger; does not have a chann
Inhibitory neurotransmitter; synthesized from glutamate by glutamate decarboxylate; has two receptors: GABA A receptor increases Cl- conductance and site of action of benzodiazepine and barbiturates, GABA B receptor increase K+ conductance
Inhibitory neurotransmitter; found primarily in spinal cord and brain stem; increases Cl- conductance
The smallest particle; can't be cut into smaller particles
Particle with a negative charge
Particle with a positive charge
Particles with no charge
The sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom
The number of protons in an atom
The major source of energy for the body; composed mostly of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Carbohydrate metabolism disorder
Causes: enzymes needed to break down sugar is not present (usually due to an inherited disorder)
Signs/symptoms: causes the sugars to build up
High energy yielding molecules (fats and oils) composed mostly of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Three water soluble compounds (acetoacetate, tbeta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone) that are produced as byproducts when fatty acids are broken down for energy; they are used as a source of energy in the heart and brain; large amounts of ketone bodies can re
The ease in which a solute diffuses through a membrane
The cellular region between the nucleus and plasma membrane; contains cytosol
The site of protein production; involved in translation by messenger RNA (mRNA), mRNA has transcription from nucleus then takes it to the cytoplasm, ribosomes translate the information then give the information to lumen of rough endoplasmic reticulum
Rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER)
Involved in protein produciton
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER)
Detoxification of drugs and steroids as well as lipid metabolism
Involved in production of ATP.
Pathology condition: any changes to the mitochondria can cause the cellular function, such as ion pump and lysosomes, to break down
Site of intracellular digestion and they destroy (digest)
deteriorated organelles and substances brought into the cells by vesicles
Breaks down poison such as alcohol and detoxifies drugs
What is the function of the protein hemoglobin?
Transports oxygen to tissues
What are the three types of cytoskeleton?
Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules
Proteins inside the muscle fiber that contracts the muscle
Tough and rigid; gives shape to the cell and protects the cell from external trauma
Involved in mitotic cell division; give the cell its shape and organize the distribution and transport of various organelles within the cytoplasm
The process in which a vesicle inside a cell fuses with a cell membrane and releases its contents to the external environment
The cell membrane changes shape and brings large molecules into the cell; after endocytosis lysosomes digest
What are the three types of endocytosis?
Phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor mediated endocytosis
Cell eating; white blood cells
Cell drinking; small/large intestine and placenta
Receptor mediated endocytosis
Low density lipoprotein (LDL) uptakes and binds cholesterol from bloodstream and carries this cholesterol to the target cell; after binding to receptor cholesterol is released into the cell; after cholesterol enters the cell it is used as a base for hormo
What is the precursor for vitamin D?
What is the precursor of estrogen and testosterone?
What does DNA stand for?
What does ATP stand for?
The result of mutations of certain regulatory genes, called protooncogenes, which normally stimulate or inhibit cell proliferation and development; causes deregulation of cell division which leads to a cancerous state (bladder cancer and acute myelogenous
What is the precursor of steroids?
Any member of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids; can cause abdominal pain during menstruation; constriction/dilation of smooth muscle wall of veins in penis; increased in pregnant female by dilation; harmful to temperature ce
Uses a substrate to form a product
What are the four different types of tissues?
Muscle, nervous, epithelial, and connective tissue
Respiratory system: removes bacteria by coughing; sweat glands: increases sweat rate; blood vessels: prevents friction from blood cells and the blood wall
Simple squamous epithelia
Lining of body cavities and capillaries to reduce friction; lining the alveoli to facilitate gas exchange
Simple cuboidal epithelium
Location: glands; lining of the kidney tubules; ducts of glands
Function: secretion and absorption; produces egg cells in female ovary and sperm cells in male testes
Simple columnar epithelium
Location: lining of the stomach and intestines, nose, ears, taste buds; goblet cells (unicellular glands) are found between the columnar epithelial cells of the duodenum
Function: secrete mucus; sensory reception
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Location: ducts of large glands, ciliated variety lines the trachea, most upper respiratory tract
Function: secretion, mucus
Stratified cuboidal epithelia
Location: ducts of sweat glands and the male urethra
Stratified columnar epithelium
Location: small amount in male urethra and in large ducts of some glands
Function: protection, secretion
Stratified squemous epithelium
Prevent passage of molecules through the space between the cells
Allow passage of small molecules through the space between neighboring cells
Contain cadherins and keratin (cytoskeletal filaments)
What percentage of the body is water?
Movement from a higher to lower concentration; does not use ATP
Is not carrier mediated; downhill gradient; does not use ATP
Is carrier mediated and exhibits stereospecificity, saturation, and competition; downhill gradient; does not use ATP
Movement from a lower to higher concentration; requires ATP
Primary active transport
Is carrier mediated and exhibits stereospecificity, saturation, and competition; uphill gradient; Na+ and K+ (pump), Ca2+ ATPase (Ca2+ pump), and H+ K+ ATPase (proton pump); requires ATP
Secondary active transport
Is carrier mediated and exhibits stereospecificity, saturation, and competition; uphill gradient; indirect use of ATP: Na+ and glucose is transported downhill with another molecule pushed uphill
Solutes move in the same direction across the membrane; part of secondary active transport
Solutes move in opposite directions across the membrane; part of secondary active transport
Flow of water across a semipermeable membrane from low to high solute concentration
Concentration of osmotically active particles in a solution
Solution with a higher osmolarity
Solution with a lower osmolarity
Increases when solute concentration increases
High osmotic pressure
What is the normal range of osmolarity in plasma?
280 - 303 mOsm/kg
Low osmotic pressure
When two solutions have the same osmotic pressure
Abnormal number of chromosomes, can be trisomy and monosomy
Down syndrome (Trisomy 21)
Causes: third copy of chromosome 21; mother is pregnant over the age of 40
Signs/symptoms: mental retardation, bone growth retardation, speech disorder, big tongue, small head, cardiovascular problems, congenital eye and ear problems
Klinefelter syndrome (XXY)
Genetic disorder; genotype is male, but phenotype is female
Causes: extra X chromosome
Signs/symptoms: body shape is more female, development of breasts, male external genitalia, uterus and ovaries, males overproduce estrogen, females overproduce testoste
Turner syndrome (monosomy)
Causes: one X chromosome is missing (XO)
Signs/symptoms: mental retardation, congenital heart disorder, speech disorder, learning disorder, impairment in eye and ear development
Programmed cell death
Causes: cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which activates caspases 3 that degrade regulatory and structural proteins in the nucleus and cytoplasm
Signs/symptoms: excess apoptosis can lead to alzheimer disease; deficienc
Excess cell proliferation
Encapsulated and surrounded by a membrane; does not spread
Does not have a membrane and can rapidly spread to other parts of the body
Autosomal dominant genetic disorder
Causes: mutation in chromosome 15; overproduction of fibrillin-1 (essential for the formation of elastic fibers)
Signs/symptoms: long limbs, long thin fingers, tall stature, predisposition to cardiovascular abnormalitie
Ehlers danlos syndrome
Rare genetic disorder
Causes: defect of collagen 1 and 3 which are involved in collagen synthesis
Signs/symptoms: abnormally stretchy skin
Causes: mutation to cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR); abnormal NaCl water movement - CFTR forms Cl and it does not get correctly processed
Signs/symptoms: male: infertility due to spermatic cord, pancreas: infection and mala
Causes: deficiency of album (prevents edema) and plasma proteins, destruction of capillaries, bacterial and viral infection of lymphatic system,
Signs/symptoms: accumulation of fluids inside the cell or interstitial space ("swelling")
Causes: antibodies on the ACh receptor
Signs/symptoms: skeletal muscle weakness, fatigue
Treatment: AChE inhibitors
Deficiency of galactose
Causes: inherited autosomal recessive trait: affects how sugar galactose is broken down causing build up and abnormal chemicals to form; due to lack of enzyme galactose-1 phosphate uridyl transferase
Signs/symptoms: swollen and inf
Causes: severe protein malnutrition
Signs/symptoms: dry skin (cachexia) lose skin folds over, loss of adipose tissue from fat deposits, fretful, irritable, hungry, diarrhea, dehydration, flaky depigmented skin/hair, peeling skin
Treatment: electrolyte bal
Causes: fatty material collects along artery walls and thickens to plaque and blocks them
Signs/symptoms: plaque buildup, less flexible and narrow artery, slowed heart blood flow; chest pain (stable angina), shortness of breath, heart attack, blood clots
Causes: too many fatty substances in the blood
Signs/symptoms: high blood cholesterol and triglycerides
Causes: too many ketone bodies in the blood
Signs/symptoms: body's pH is lowered to dangeriously acidic levels
Causes: accumulation of ketone bodies in urine, sodium is excreted with them
Signs/symptoms: thirsty, frequent urination, dehydration, nausea, vomiting, heavy breathing, pupil dilation, breath odor of fruit (acetone)
Treatment: insulin and intranous fluid
Causes: inadequate blood flow to an organ, insufficient oxygen delivery rate, increased blood levels of lactic acid
Signs/symptoms: heart: may occur from atherosclerosis leading to blood clot or artery spasm, severe chest and left arm pain
Fatal genetic lipid disorder
Causes: deficiency of acid hydrolase and build up of ganglioside GM2
Signs/symptoms: mental retardation, blindness, spastic movements, and death within 1.5 years from birth
Causes: inherited, lack of cell receptors that bind to cholesterol and bind to LDL's, cholesterol cannot enter the cells and builds up in the blood
Signs/symptoms: stroke or myocardial infarction
Causes: lack of glucocerebrosidase enzyme which causes harmful substances to build up in the liver, spleen, bones and bone marrow (consists of three main types):
Type 1: most common, bone disease, anemia, enlarged spleen and thrombocytopenia (affects chil
Causes: too much aptosis (cell death) which causes extensive nerve cell loss
Signs/symptoms: loss of memory
Cause: insufficiency of aptosis (cell death)
Bladder cancer/acute myelogenous leukemia
Causes: oncogenes (mutations of certain regulatory genes)
Type 1 diabetes
Causes: antibodies destroy beta cells which causes a decrease of insulin, hyperglycemia
Signs/symptoms: hyperglycemia which can destroy the blood vessel's wall, neuropathy (deficiency of glucose to neurons), excess glucose can destroy n
Type 2 diabetes
Causes: mutation to insulin receptors which causes them to become resistant to insulin
Signs/symptoms: hyperglycemia which can destroy the blood vessel's wall, neuropathy (deficiency of glucose to neurons), excess glucose can destroy neph
50 year old male has a respiratory problem.
He is: coughing, has hypertension and some abstraction/closure of some blood vessels.
The sign symptoms show that he has risk for stroke and CNS. Sometime ?she feels thirsty and he has frequent urination, as wel
65 year old female
has severe headaches, sleep disorder and sometimes she has anxiety, vomiting and dizziness.
What is your diagnosis?
Over secretion of norepinephrine
25 year old male has some respiratory problems
such as coughing, can't have sexual activity, diarrhea, hypotension, deficiency of protein and he has the sign symptoms for type 1 diabetes.
What is your diagnosis?
35 year old male has a protein disorder in his GI tract.
His stomach doesn't secrete sufficient acid. At the same time he feels some weakness in his muscle and he can't walk.
What is your diagnosis?
Marasmus & Myasthenia gravis
These are the features of the _________________________.
flexible lipid bilayer
separates cytosol from extracellular matrix
Phospholipids are arranged in a double layer in the cell membrane,
where the hydrophilic heads of the outer layer of the membrane face the extracellular matrix and the heads of the inner layer face the cytoplasm.
The Hydrophobic tails of both layers face
Phospholipids are amphipathic, meaning they are both hydrophilic and hydrophobic.
What features of a phospholipid allow this behavior and how are these features oriented in the plasma membrane?
Integral proteins are the most common proteins on the surface of the cell membrane and act as receptors, while peripheral proteins face the cytoplasm and associates with filamentous structures.
Integral proteins may be embedded in a part of the lipid bila
What is the difference between Integral and peripheral membrane proteins?
vSNARE proteins on the vesicle membrane surface bind with intracellular membrane-bound tSNARE proteins and allow for the fusion of both membranes in a process called Exocytosis.
Which protein(s) are responsible for allowing vesicles from the Golgi apparatus to fuse to the plasma membrane, and which mechanism is this action a part of?
Gaucher's Type II
A heritable disease causing a deficiency in glucocerebrosidase results in the accumulation of harmful substances in the cells and organ tissue of a 4-month-old infant, who presents with seizures and spasms, motor difficulties, enlarged liver and spleen de
These are the functions or features of the ___________.
it's nuclear envelope is continuous with the lumen of the Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
directs the cell's functions for protein synthesis
contains chromosomes and chromatin composed of histone protei
The regulation of gene transcription and extent of expression is controlled in chromatin by ____, a structure closely associated with the DNA double helix.
abnormal disjunction during Meiosis II
Aneuploidy is a family of conditions involving an abnormal number of chromosomes caused by ________.
The following can accelerate the process of ______.
free radical damage to cells
Benign and malignant tumors are _______, cell masses that divide and multiply abnormally.
smooth & cardiac
_____ & ______ muscle tissues produce involuntary force and contractile movement in organs.
______________ thic?k outer sheath of connective tissue, blood vessels found within it.
_________ loose, thin connective tissue layer that envelopes each individual nerve fiber.
penetrates into the nerve to envelop nerve fiber bundles, is penetrated by blood vessels.
The cells of myocardial tissue need a constant supply of Ca2+ ions for muscle contractions in the heart.
The structure that allows the flow of Ca2+ in between cells is:
__________ is a secretory mechanism,
found in axillary, pubic and sebaceous exocrine glands,
requires it's cells to be in a constant state of mitotic divisions as it uses the entire cell as it's secretory vesicle and degrades the cell as a component of th
an autosomal dominant defect of chromosome 15; fibrillin-1
Marfan syndrome typically presents with hypertension as a result of cardiomegaly, heart murmur, stretch marks, abnormally long limbs and fingers, and pain surrounding the joints. These conditions are the result of ________, affecting the gene that encodes
the following are molecules are found within the _________.
The flow of ions or molecules across the cell's plasma membrane down a concentration gradient, without the need for metabolic energy generation, is a type of transport called:
Insulin acts as a _____, activating intracellular ____ to open channels for glucose to enter the cell in what type of passive transport?
fundus, HCl, to convert pepsinogen into pepsin.
Parietal cells of the ____ secrete ___ into the lumen of the stomach, and what function does it serve?
primary needs direct input of ATP while secondary is indirectly energized by membrane Na+ gradient.
What is the difference between primary and secondary active transport?
Hyperglycemia, where glucose concentration of the blood and filtrate exceeds transport maximum
Glycosuria is a condition characterized by glucose within the urine as a result of:
Edema, caused by an Albumin deficiency in the blood
Edema, caused by co?ngenital disorder or local injury to capillaries
An accumulation of fluid inside the cell and/or interstitial space is called ____, and can be caused by:
Match the ion with its equilibrium potential:
Match the ion with its equilibrium potential:
_____ 120+ mv
Match the ion with its equilibrium potential:
_____ 85- m
Acetylcholinesterase, acetyl-CoA and choline
In the neuro-muscular junction _____ is an enzyme, which degrades Acetylcholine into:
A deficiency of _____ secretion from the brain stem's "black substance" may result in muscular tremors, difficulties with speech, disordered movement of limbs and digits, and the degeneration of neurons with D2 receptors.
ketoacidosis, where the body's pH reaches dangerously acidic levels
Many diet fads such as juice cleansing or liquid diets cause individuals to fast from typical substance- based diets. Undergoing a diet like this over a long period of time may produce excessive ketone bodies that accumulate, resulting in:
degradation of galactose; Galactosemia
Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase is an enzyme responsible for _____, and a deficiency in this enzyme results in intense dehydration, diarrhea, and a deficiency in electrolytes, symptoms of ______.
Cholesterol, testosterone & androgen
Cholesterol, Estrogen & Progesterone
____ is the precursor for Steroid production, which is the building block of:
the following statements are true of ___________:
they are a class of proteins
they increase the rate of biological reactions
they are not changed after a reaction
_________ is the mechanism of glucose-6-phosphate formation from glycogen via the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase in the liver.
decreased blood flow to the heart, Myocardial Ischemia
Obstruction of blood flow by atherosclerosis, clots, or arterial spasms may cause intense pain radiating in the chest and down the left arm, shortness of breath, and rapid heart rate. This is due to ______, and is a condition referred to as _____.
the following statements are true of ___________:
electrons are carried by coenzymes NADH & FADH
energy generated is taken up by ATP synthase
utilizes a proton pump