Marketing chp. 5

consumer behavior

the process involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use, or dispose of products, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy needs and desires


the relative importance of perceived consequences of the purchase to a customer

perceived risk

the belief that choice of a product has potentially negative consequences, either financial, physical, or social

problem recognition

the process that occurs whenever the consumer sees a significant difference between his current state of affairs and some desired or ideal state... recognition initiates the decision making process

information search

the process whereby a consumer searches for appropriate information to make a sensible decision

behavioral targeting

the marketing practice by which marketers deliver advertisements for products a consumer is looking for by watching what the consumer does online

evaluative criteria

the dimensions used by consumers to compare competing product alternatives.


a mental rule of thumb that leads to speedy decisions by simplifying the process

brand loyalty

a pattern of repeat product purchases, accompanied by an underlying positive attitude toward the brand that is based on the belief that the brand makes products superior to those of its competition

consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction

Overall feelings about a product after we've purchased it.

cognitive dissonance

the anxiety or regret a consumer may feel after choosing from among several similar attractive choices


the process by which people select, organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world


the extent to which a stimulus is capable of being registered by a person's sensory receptors

subliminal advertising

supposedly hidden messages in marketer's communications


the extent to which a person devotes mental processing to a particular stimulus


the process of assigning meaning to a stimulus based on prior associations a person has with it and assumptions he makes about it


an internal state that drives is to satisfy needs by activating goal-oriented behavior

hierarchy of needs

an approach that categorizes motives according to five levels of importance, the more basic needs being on the bottom and the higher needs at the top


a relatively permanent change in behavior caused by acquired information or experience

behavioral learning theories

theories of learning that focus on how consumer behavior is changed by external evens or stimuli

classical condition

the learning that occurs when a stimulus eliciting a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not elicit an a response on its own but will cause a similar response over time because of its association with the first stimulus

operant conditioning

learning that occurs as the result of rewards or punishments

stimulus generalization

behavior caused by a reaction to one stimulus occurs in the presence of other stimuli

cognitive learning theory

theory of learning that stresses the importance of internal mental processes & that views people as problem solvers who actively use information form the world around them to master their environment

observational learning

learning that occurs when people watch the actions of others and note what happens to them as a result


a learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably to stimuli on the basis of relatively enduring evaluations of people, objects, and issues


the feeling component of attitudes; refers to the overall emotional response a person has to a product


the knowing component of attitudes; refers to the beliefs or knowledge a person has about a product and its important characteristics


the doing component of attitude; involves a consumer's intention to so something, such as the intention to purchase or use a certain product


the set of unique psychological characteristics that consistently influences the way a person responds to situations in the environment


an individual's self-image that is composed if a mixture of beliefs, observations, and feelings about personal attributes

family life-cycle

a means of characterizing consumers within a family structure in the basis of different stages through which people pass as they grow older


the pattern of living that determines how people choose to spend their time, money, and energy and that reflects their values, tastes, and preferences


the use of psychological, sociological, and anthropological factors to construct market segments


the values, beliefs, customs, and tastes a group of people values


a group within a society whose members share a distinctive set of beliefs, characteristics


a social movement that attempts to protect consumers from harmful business practices


a broad philosophy and social movement that seeks conservation and improvement of the natural environment

Kyoto protocol

a global agreement among countries that aims at reducing greenhouse gasses that create

environmental stewardship

The position that an organization takes to protect or enhance the natural environment as it conducts its business activities.

green marketing

a marketing strategy that supports environmental stewardship by creating a differential benefit in the minds of consumers


environmentally-friendly claims that are exaggerated or untrue

social class

the overall rank or social standing of groups os people within a society according to the value assigned to factors such as family background, education, occupation, and income

status symbols

visible markers that provide a way for people to flaunt their membership in higher social classes


the hundreds of millions of global consumers who now enjoy a level of purchasing power that's sufficient to let them afford high-quality products- except for big-ticket items like college educations, housing, or luxury cars

reference group

an actual or imaginary individual or group that has a significant effect on an individual's evaluations, aspirations, or behavior

opinion leader

a person who is frequently able to influence other's attitudes or behaviors by virtue oh his active interest and expertise in one or more product categories

gender roles

society's expectations regarding the appropriate attitudes, behaviors, and appearance for men and women


a straight, urban male who is keenly interested in fashion, home design, gourmet cooking, and personal care.

consumer-to-consumer (c2c) e-commerce

communications and purchases that occur among individuals without directly involving the manufacturer or retailer

social network services

on-line applications that use software to build on-line communities of people who share interests and activities

brand community

a group of consumers who share a set of social relationships based upon usage or interest in a product

consumer tribe

a group of people who share a lifestyle and who can identify with each other because of a shared allegiance to an activity or a product


on-line personal journals similar to web pages, but a different technology lets people upload a few sentences without going through the more elaborate process of updating a web site