Durham Story of Jesus Test 1

Most populous world religions today

Judaism, christianity, buddhism, hinduism, islam


Holy book of Islam
Written in Arabic by Muhammad
Mentions Moses, David, Jesus


Before Christ


Before Common Era


Anno Domini
In the year of our Lord
When Christ was born


Common Era

Major religious categories

Religions of Nature
Religions of Contemplation
Religions of History

Religions of Nature

-Canaanite and Animism
-Ancient religions
-Based on the agricultural cycle of which people needed to please
-Society needed to "control" nature

Religions of Contemplation

-Buddhism and Hinduism
-Originated in Northern India
-There is a reality beyond this of which we aspire to be a part
-Meditation and Contemplation to escape to a better life

Religions of History

-Judaism and Christianity
-leader of the religion created history and then became a part of it
-God created history and entered it

How many books are in the Old Testament?

39 books

How many books are in the New Testament?

27 books

How many books are in the Bible?

66 books


-A binding agreement
-evidence of a fact or event
-a division of the Bible: Old/New


-A binding agreement based on a promise
-First covenant: Noah + rainbow
-New Covenant: Jesus died and she's his blood so we could have a new relationship with God based on feelings of the heart
-god made a covenant with Noah, Abraham, and Israel

Codex Sinaiticus

-most important book in the world
-oldest copy of New Testament
-Christian Bible in Greek
-found in British Library
-Unicials (all caps)
-Scripto Continua (no spaces)


-word means a measuring stick
-Hebrew the word is Kanna
-Greek the word is Kanin (a reed)
-canonical = inspired
-inspired = authoritative for the church, belong in the Bible

Canonization Time Line

-1st century NT documents written
-2nd century universal acceptance of Gospels, Acts, Paul, 1 Peter, 1 John
-4th century (367 AD) festal letter of Athanasias


Parables, miracle stories, stories
A collection of parables/miracle stories

Languages of the New Testament

-earliest manuscripts = Koine Greek
-Koine Greek = common Greek
-Greek = international language

What language did Jesus speak?

-language akin to Hebrew
-Abba = father
-Imma = mother

Koine Greek

-Common Greek
-Greek of the marketplace


Paper like surface


-animal skin
-preferred choice over papyrus
-lasts longer


-secretary stenographer
-Ken who takes dictations or copies manuscripts
-Paul's letters to the romans written by Tertius
-needed parchment, writing tablet, stylus, pen and ink


Traditional document form


-plural codices
-early 2 century
-book form
-christians adopted use of this form for their scriptures to differentiate from Torah
-advantages over scroll

Advantages of codices over scrolls

-several books bind together easily
-quicker location of text
-cost efficient, use bob sides

John Rylands P52

-A fragment of the Gospel of John from ca 125 AD
-7 verses
-Oldest NT recovery

Why the need for a canonical list?

-which accounts do YOU believe?
-which can be used in PUBLIC WORSHIP?
-which can settle THEOLOGICAL DISPUTES?
-What truths are worth DYING for?

How was Canonicity Determined?



Is there a connection to an apostle?


Does of conform to the rest of scripture and tradition?


Is it edifying for, being used in worship of, the churches?

Why trust the New Testament?

-Biblical manuscript evidence
-archeological evidence
-skill of ancient scribes
-extra biblical manuscript evidence
-internal biblical consistency

Johannes Gutenberg

-Inventor of the printing press
-bible more widely spread

William Tyndale

-Father of the English bible (16th c)
-translated NT into English form original Greek

King James the First

-created the "authorized" version of the Bible

Earliest translations of the Bible

-Original: OT Hebrew, NT Greek
-Septuagint: OT from Hebrew to Greek (3rd c)
-Vulgate: OT & NT from Hebrew and Greek to Latin (4th c)


Good news
From Greek word euANGELion

Name the four gospels

Luke &

Evolution of the word gospel

-originally REWARD given to a bringer of good news
-Later, the GOOD NEWS itself
-In NT, used to identify message PROCLAIMED by JESUS
-elsewhere in NT, used to identify the message ABOUT JESUS
-outside NT used to designate specific documents (i.e. Matt, Ma


The proclaimed message
The sermon


-Needed a loud voice and faith in the entrusted message

Why delay in putting the gospels into writing? (20+ years)

-eyewitnesses still alive
-oral tradition preferred
-expectation of imminent return of Jesus

Why the need to write the gospels down?

-eyewitnesses dying
-spread of church abroad
-need for apologetic material
-teaching of new converts (catechism)
-use in worship service
-circulation of other questionable materials
-delay of Jesus' return

Why the need for 4 gospels?

-diversity of early church
-each authoritative in a different geographical area
-provide a fuller point of view



Synoptic gospels

Matthew, Mark, Luke

Documentary hypothesis

Mark wrote his gospel first
Matt and Luke wrote the gospels next, using much of Mark's material but also adding their own unique material ("M" & "L")
Matthew and Luke share common material not in Mark from an earlier document "Q


-Document that Matt and Luke pulled shared material from not included in Mark
-Consists of teaching material of Jesus
-has not been found yet


Matthew's unique material


Luke's unique material

Earliest Gospel?



-Mark is the "Action" gospel
-Jesus portrayed as a man of deeds
42 times
-Mark also known as the "Reaction" gospel
-wants to get a reaction out of audience
-uses "amazed" frequently

What does Jesus mean?


What does Christ mean?

Anointed One or Messiah

Son of Man

-Jesus' favorite self-designation
-lord of the sabbath
-"he didn't create us for rules, he created rules so we could have a better life"
-Old Testament roots: Daniel 7:13
"As I watched in the night, I saw one like a human being (son of man) coming with th