What is a lone pair?
A pair of electrons that is not used in bonding
What effect does a lone electron pair have on molecular shape?
A lone pair pushes bonding electron pairs away
How does electronegativity affect the polarity of the bond between two atoms?
The more electronegative atom will make its end of the bond more negative
What is an ionic solid?
Many positive and negative ions bonded to form a solid
What is the difference between a chemical bond formed in a molecule of Cl2 and a chemical bond formed in a molecule of HCl
Both Cl2 and HCl are covalent molecules, but the bonding electrons in Cl2 are shared more equally between atoms than in HCl
What is a polar molecule?
A molecule with a negative and a positive pole
Which of the following best describes a bond formed between two unlike atoms?
A type of bond is determined by the difference in electronegativity of the atoms
What is a molecular dipole movement?
A separation of charge forming a positive and a negative end of a molecule
Which of these is not a type of crystalline solid?
What shape would a molecule with two bound groups and two lone pairs have?
How does the VSEPR theory explain molecular shape?
Electron pairs repelling each other push atoms apart
Which statement best describes what must occur for two atoms to combine to form a chemical bond?
The attractive forces of both nuclei must overcome their repulsive forces for a chemical bond to form
What would cause the shape of a molecule to be tetrahedral?
Four atoms bound to a central atom with no lone pairs
What is the electronegativity difference in O2
Why is aluminum iodide covalent?
The electrons are slightly more attracted more toward the iodine atoms but not enough to form an ionic bond
Which of the following is not true about molecular orbital theory?
Each molecular orbital can accommodate only one electron
How many bonding pairs are there in the valence shell of a SnCl2 molecule?
Which of the following bonds is the most polar?
Why are metals malleable?
Because of their structure and uniform bonding in all directions
In the cyanide anion CN-, what is the formal charge on the nitrogen atom?
What type of alloy will C and Fe form?
What type of bond will magnesium selenide form?
An ionic bond
Which of the following spectroscopies is/are suitable for studying materials on surfaces?
XPS and UPS
Ionizing radiation consists of what type of radiation/rays/waves?
Gamma rays and X-rays
Which of the following are excited in ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy?
How is a spectrum obtained in NMR spectroscopy?
Low-frequency radio waves bombard the atom and cause nuclei in a low spin state to move to a higher spin state
PES uses which type of electromagnetic radiation?
Ultraviolet and Visible
Which of the following elements can be detected by XPS?
Lithium and Boron
Which type of wavelength in UV/V spectroscopy is absorbed by easily excited electrons?
The oscillation of electrons in an antenna is an example of which type of radiation/waves/rays?
When does absorption occur in infrared spectroscopy?
When the frequency of the infrared radiation is the same as the vibrational frequency of the bond