Biodiversity: KINGDOM PLANTAE

Plants

multicellular organisms that can make their own food

Plants

the first and most important link in every food chain

nonvascular plants and vascular plants

two distinct groups of plants

nonvascular plants

They lack the network of vascular tissues that transport food and water throughout the entire plant body

vascular plants

They are large terrestrial plants that thrive and can survive even in areas with limited water supply. Their body structure is complex and consists of the network of vascular tissues that run throughout the entire plant body

spore-producing vascular plants and seed-producing vascular plants

two groups of vascular plants

spore-producing vascular plants

They reproduce by alternation referred to as the VASCULAR CRYPTOGRAMS

seed-producing vascular plants

They are called EMBRYOPHYTES

PHYLUM BRYOPHYTA (Bryophytes)

They are terrestrial moisture-loving plants that are usually found in bogs, shady and moist places. Their body are multicellular and consisting of short chlorophyllous leafy stem covered with a thick layer of cuticle and rootlike structures called rhizoid

PHYLUM BRYOPHYTA (Bryophytes)

They lack the vascular elements but are equipped with tissues that can transport water and food to the different parts of the plant body

PHYLUM BRYOPHYTA (Bryophytes)

They are embryo forming and their reproductive process exhibits a life cycle. This life cycle involves the alternation of generations that differs structurally: the gametophyte and sporophyte.

music, hepaticae, and anthocerotae

three classes of bryophytes

PHYLUM LYCOPHYTA (LYCOPODPHYTA)

Members of this phylum are low growing and abundant in places where there is much water or moisture. The plant body consists of extensive prostate rhizomes and vertical chlorophyllous tiny leaves (called microphylls) arranged in a whorl fashion, resemblin

lycopodium (ground pine) and selaginella (club mosses)

Representatives of Lycopodphyta

PHYLUM LYCOPHYTA (LYCOPODPHYTA)

The plant body contains the vascular elements that transport food and water and they reproduce alternation of generation, where the sporophyte is the dominant generation.

PHYLUM SPHENOPHYTA

This phylum consists of only one genus existing today, GENUS EQUISETUM, with about 15 species. All species are herbaceous and usually one meter tall.

PHYLUM SPHENOPHYTA

The stems are aerial with a whorl of small fused leaves (microphylls) at a node and a spore producing, cone like strobilus on top. The plant is anchored to the soil by underground rhizomes

Genus Equisetum

A genus of phylum sphenophyta that is commonly called horsetail because the dominant sporophyte superficially resembles a horse`s tail and are also mostly found in moist places.

PHYLUM PSILOPHYTA

This phylum contains the simplest of all living vascular plants. This plant reproduce by means of spores and lack roots and leaves.

Psilotum (whisk fern) and tmesipteris.

Examples of psilophyta

PHYLUM FELICINOPHYTA (PTERIDOPHYTA)

These are ferns that thrive in various environments, but most ferns thrive well in moist and shady habitats. Some ferns are well adapted in dry, hot desert conditions while some are floating or submerged in water. Others are epiphytes or vines. All ferns

Fern

Example of felicinophyta that the body may be in the form of extensive horizontal rhizome that bear roots (rhizoid) with extensive leaves that may be leathery or filmy and exhibit a life cycle where the leafy fern (the sporophyte) is the most conspicuous

EMBRYOPHYTES

they are seed-producing and forming embryo-forming plants

gymnosperms and angiosperms

Two groups of Embryophytes

Gymnosperms

They are plants that bear "naked seeds".

REMINDER

Naked because the seeds are not produced within the ovary; instead, they are born on the surface of reproductive structures called cones.

Phylum Cycadophyta, Phylum Ginkgophyta, Phylum Gnetophyta, and Phylum Conifera

Four phyla of Gymnosperms

Phylum Cycadophyta

Members of this phylum are commonly called cycads (palmlike trees). Cycad is the only living genus with about 200 species. The seeds are born on spiny cones from specialized leaves called sporophylls. One primitive attribute of cycads is the presence of f

Phylum Ginkgophyta

This phylum consists of a single species, GINGKO BILOBA, which bear in naked seeds in green, fruitlike structures. The plant is a hard, conical tree with fan-shaped deciduous leaves that arise from spurs on the branches.

Gingkos (Gingko Biloba)

This are species of Gingkgophyta that grow under protected conditions that they are called "domesticated plants" and are planted as ornamental tree. They are like cycads as they also need the presence of flagellated sperm to fertilized the egg.

Phylum Conifera

The name of the phylum is derived from the cones that the plants produce. The trees can be easily identified because of their conical shape. The trees produce pollen and ovulate cones.

Conifers

They are in Phylum Conifera that are gymnosperms characterized by evergreen trees that produced needlelike to scalelike leaves that are heavily cutinized.

Angiosperms

they are plants that produce seeds enclosed in an ovary (fruit)

PHYLUM ANTHOPHYTA OR ANGIOSPERMAE

One phylum of Angiosperms

PHYLUM ANTHOPHYTA OR ANGIOSPERMAE

Members of this phylum consist of plants that produce flower as means of reproduction.

REMINDER

The flower may bear both the stamen (male reproductive structure) and the pistil (female reproductive structures).

Ovary

a part of a pistil, contains the ovules (immature seeds)

REMINDER

After fertilization, the ovules develop into seeds that contain the young plants. The ovary, on the other hand, becomes the fruit.

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monocotyledonae and dicotyledonae

There are two classes of anthophytes

PHYLUM LYCOPHYTA, PHYLUM SPHENOPHYTA,
PHYLUM PSILOPHYTA, PHYLUM FELICINOPHYTA

Four phyla of vascular cryptograms

Plant

It is an organism does not have its own means of locomotion and it produces new cells out of inorganic materials through the process of photosynthesis

Phylum Gnetophyta

This phylum is described as the unusual gymnosperm. Unusual since the tree genera - gnetum, ephedra and welwitshia - differ significantly from one another in their vegetative and reproductive structures. They are semidesert plants.

ephedra

It is a genera of the Phylum Gnetophyta that is considered the closest to angiosperms since its mode of fertilization closely resembles the flowering plants.