Soc 101 Ch 14-18

Which sociological perspective emphasizes that the common identity and social integration fostered by education contribute to overall societal stability and consensus?

the functionalist perspective

Which one of the following was introduced into school systems to promote social change?
a. sex education classes
b. affirmative action programs
c. Project Head Start
d. all of the above

all of the above

The correspondence principle was developed by

Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis

The student subculture that is hostile to the college environment and seeks out ideas that may or may not relate to studies is called the

nonconformist subculture.

Most recent research on ability grouping raises questions about its

effectiveness, especially for lower-achieving students.

The most basic manifest function of education is

transmitting knowledge

Seventy years ago, a high school diploma was the minimum requirement for entry into the paid labor force of the United States. Today, a college diploma is virtually the bare minimum. This change reflects the process of

credentialism.

Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis have argued that capitalism requires a skilled, disciplined labor force and that the educational system of the United States is structured with that objective in mind. Citing numerous studies, they offer support for what t

the correspondence principle.

The teacher-expectancy effect is most closely associated with

the interactionist perspective.

Sociologist Max Weber noted five basic characteristics of bureaucracy, all of which are evident in the vast majority of schools, whether at the elementary, secondary, or even college level. Which of the following is not one of them?
a. division of labor
b

shared decision making

The ___________________ perspective stresses the importance of education in transmitting culture, maintaining social control, and promoting social change.

functionalist;

In the past, the integrative function of education was most obvious through its emphasis on promoting a common written and spoken ___________________.

language;

The ___________________ subculture identifies with the intellectual concerns of the faculty and values knowledge for its own sake.

academic

A(n) ___________________ ___________________ is an experimental school that is developed and managed outside the public school system.

charter school

Women's education tends to suffer in those cultures with traditional ___________________ roles.

gender

Schools perform a variety of ___________________ functions, such as transmitting culture, promoting social and political integration, and maintaining social control.

latent;

School dress codes are an example of ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________, one of Max Weber's basic characteristics of bureaucratization.

written rules and regulations

The term ___________________ ___________________ refers to standards of behavior that are deemed proper by society and are taught subtly in schools. For example, children must not speak until the teacher calls on them and must regulate their activities ac

hidden curriculum

___________________ is the practice of placing students in specific curriculum groups on the basis of their test scores and other criteria.

Tracking

Of the four distinctive subcultures among college students discussed in the text, the ___________________ subculture is interested primarily in career prospects, and views college as a means of obtaining degrees that are essential for advancement.

vocational

An experimental school that is developed and managed by individuals, groups of parents, or educational management organizations.

Charter school

The tendency of schools to promote the values expected of individuals in each social class and to perpetuate social class divisions from one generation to the next.

Correspondence principle

An increase in the lowest level of education needed to enter a field

Credentialism

A formal process of learning in which some people consciously teach, while others adopt the social role of learner.

Education

Standards of behavior that are deemed proper by society and are taught subtly in schools.

Hidden curriculum

The impact that a teacher's expectations about a student's performance may have on the student's actual achievements.

Teacher-expectancy effect

The practice of placing students in specific curriculum groups on the basis of their test scores and other criteria.

Tracking

Sociologists have identified four distinctive subcultures among college students

*The collegiate subculture focuses on having fun and socializing. These students define what constitutes a "reasonable" amount of academic work (and what amount of work is "excessive" and leads to being labeled a "grind"). Members of the collegiate subcul

Max Weber noted five basic characteristics of bureaucracy, all of which are evident in the vast majority of schools, whether at the elementary, secondary, or even college level:

*DIVISION OF LABOR. Specialized experts teach particular age levels and specific subjects. Public elementary and secondary schools now employ instructors whose sole responsibility is to work with children with learning disabilities or physical impairments

Functionalists

*take a generally positive view of the bureaucratization of education
*stress that the bureaucratization of education increases the likelihood that students, teachers, and administrators will be dealt with fairly�that is, on the basis of rational and equi

conflict theorists

*argue that the trend toward more centralized education has harmful consequences for disadvantaged people.
*low-income and minority parents will have even less influence over citywide and statewide educational administrators than they have over local scho

MODULE 43 Recap and Review

*Education is a cultural universal found in varied forms throughout the world.
*The transmission of knowledge and bestowal of status are manifest functions of education. Among the latent functions are transmitting culture, promoting social and political i

Interactionists

emphasize that ability alone may be less predictive of academic success than one might think

schools perform a number of latent functions

transmitting culture, promoting social and political integration, maintaining social control, and serving as an agent of change.

MODULE 44 Recap and Review

*Most schools in the United States are organized like formal organizations such as factories and hospitals.
*Weber's five basic characteristics of bureaucracies are all evident in schools.
*Teachers are professionals who serve as part of a bureaucracy. Th

Durkheim's view

religion is a collective act that includes many forms of behavior in which people interact with others

ecclesia, the denomination, the sect, and the new religious movement, or cult.

Four Basic Forms of Organization

A literal interpretation of the Bible regarding the creation of humanity and the universe, used to argue that evolution should not be presented as established scientific fact.

Creationism

A large, organized religion that is not officially linked to the state or government

Denomination

A religious organization that claims to include most or all members of a society and is recognized as the national or official religion.

Ecclesia

A religious group that is the outgrowth of a sect, yet remains isolated from society.

Established sect

An emphasis on doctrinal conformity and the literal interpretation of sacred texts.

Fundamentalism

The idea that life is so complex it could only have been created by intelligent design.

Intelligent design (ID)

Use of a church, primarily Roman Catholic, in a political effort to eliminate poverty, discrimination, and other forms of injustice from a secular society.

Liberation theology

A small, secretive religious group that represents either a new religion or a major innovation of an existing faith.
Profane The ordinary and commonplace elements of life, as distinguished from the sacred.

New religious movement (NRM) or cult

The ordinary and commonplace elements of life, as distinguished from the sacred.

Profane

Max Weber's term for the disciplined work ethic, this-worldly concerns, and rational orientation to life emphasized by John Calvin and his followers.

Protestant ethic

A scholarly category that includes organizations that may see themselves as religious but may be seen by others as "sort of religious.

Quasi-religion

A unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things.

Religion

A statement to which members of a particular religion adhere.

Religious belief

The feeling or perception of being in direct contact with the ultimate reality, such as a divine being, or of being overcome with religious emotion.

Religious experience

A practice required or expected of members of a faith

Religious ritual

Elements beyond everyday life that inspire awe, respect, and even fear.

Sacred

A relatively small religious group that has broken away from some other religious organization to renew what it considers the original vision of the faith.

Sect

The process through which religions' influence on other social institutions diminishes.

Secularization

Which of the following sociologists stressed the social impact of religion and was perhaps the first to recognize the critical importance of religion in human societies?
A. Max Weber
B. Karl Marx
C. �mile Durkheim
D. Talcott Parsons

�mile Durkheim

A Roman Catholic parish church offers services in the native language of an immigrant community. This is an example of

the integrative function of religion.

Sociologist Max Weber pointed out that the followers of John Calvin emphasized a disciplined work ethic, this-worldly concerns, and a rational orientation to life. Collectively, this point of view has been referred to as

the Protestant ethic.

The use of a church, primarily Roman Catholic, in a political effort to eliminate poverty, discrimination, and other forms of injustice evident in a secular society is referred to as

liberation theology.

Many people in the United States strongly adhere to the biblical explanation of the beginning of the universe. Adherents of this point of view are known as

creationists.

The Adam and Eve account of creation found in Genesis, the first book of the Old Testament, is an example of a religious

belief.

Which of the following is not an example of an ecclesia?
A. The Lutheran church in Sweden
B. Islam in Saudi Arabia
C. Buddhism in Thailand
D. The Episcopal church in the United States

The Episcopal church in the United States

Religion defines the spiritual world and gives meaning to the divine. These are what functions of religion?

Manifest

Which sociological perspective emphasizes the integrative power of religion in human society?

Functionalist perspective

Which of the following religions is not monotheistic?

Buddhism

The ___________________ encompasses elements beyond everyday life that inspire awe, respect, and even fear, as compared to the ___________________, which includes the ordinary and the commonplace.

sacred; profane

Scientology is an example of a(n) __________________________.

quasi-religion

___________________ is the largest single faith in the world; the second largest is ___________________.

Christianity; Islam

Religious ___________________ are statements to which members of a particular religion adhere.

beliefs

A(n) ___________________ is a religious organization that claims to include most or all members of a society and is recognized as the national or official religion.

ecclesia;

Because they are ___________________, most religions tend to reinforce men's dominance in secular as well as spiritual matters.

patriarchal

The single largest denomination in the United States is ___________________ ___________________.

Roman Catholicism

The big bang theory is challenged by ___________________, who hold to the biblical account of creation of humans and the universe.

creationists;

Unlike ecclesiae and denominations, ___________________ require intensive commitments and demonstrations of belief by members.

sects

A possible dysfunction of ___________________ ___________________ would be the belief that when Roman Catholics focus on political and governmental injustice, the clergy are no longer addressing people's personal and spiritual needs.

liberation theology

Sociologists approach war in three different ways

*global view study how and why two or more nations become engaged in military conflict.
*nation-state view stress the interaction of internal political, socioeconomic, and cultural forces.
*micro view focus on the social impact of war on individuals and t

Which two basic types of economic system distinguish contemporary industrial societies?

capitalism and socialism

According to the discussion of capitalism in the text, which of the following statements is true?
A. The means of production are held largely in private hands.
B. The main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profits.
C. The degree to wh

all of the above

G. William Domhoff's model is an example of a(n)

elite theory of power

In terms of voter turnout, the United States typically ranks

lowest among industrialized nations.

What are the three basic sources of power within any political system?

force, influence, and authority

Which of the following is not part of the classification system of authority developed by Max Weber?
A. traditional authority
B. pluralist authority
C. legal-rational authority
D. charismatic authority

pluralist authority

According to C. Wright Mills, power rests in the hands of the

power elite.

The systematic, widespread withdrawal of investment in basic aspects of productivity such as factories and plants is called

deindustrialization.

Sociologists and labor specialists foresee a workforce increasingly composed of
A. women.
B. racial minorities.
C. ethnic minorities.
D. all of the above.

all of the above.

The positive efforts to recruit minority group members or women for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities are referred to as

affirmative action.

The principle of _______________________ _______________________, as expounded and endorsed by the British economist Adam Smith, was the prevailing form of capitalism immediately following the Industrial Revolution.

laissez-faire

Under _______________________, the means of production and distribution in a society are collectively rather than privately owned, and the basic objective of the economic system is to meet people's needs rather than to maximize profits.

socialism;

_______________________ is an economic system under which all property is communally owned and no social distinctions are made based on people's ability to produce.

Communism

_______________________ theorists point out that while pure monopolies are not a basic element of the economy of the United States, competition is much more restricted than one might expect in what is called a free enterprise system.

Conflict

Some capitalist nations, such as the United States, outlaw _______________________ through antitrust legislation.

monopolies

The elite model of political power implies that the United States has a(n) _______________________ as its form of government.

oligarchy;

Sexism has been the most serious barrier to women interested in holding public office. To remedy this situation, many countries have adopted _______________________ for female representatives.

quotas

_______________________ is the exercise of power through a process of persuasion.

Influence

The United States is commonly classified as a(n) _______________________ _______________________, because the elected members of Congress and state legislatures make our laws.

representative democracy

Advocates of the _______________________ model suggest that competing groups within the community have access to government, so that no single group is dominant.

pluralist

Bestowing status on students by awarding them a diploma after they have successfully completed all graduation requirements can be considered a

Bestowing status on students by awarding them a diploma after they have successfully completed all graduation requirements can be considered a

The term hidden curriculum refers to

the standards of behavior that are deemed proper by society and are taught subtly in schools.

What is tracking?

the practice of placing students in specific curriculum groups on the basis of test scores and other criteria

Which researcher's work yielded the concept referred to as the teacher-expectancy effect?

Robert Rosenthal

In a particular school system, a teacher's aide must report to her teacher, and the teacher must report to his assistant principal, who then must report to her principal, who then must report to the superintendent, who ultimately is responsible to the boa

hierarchy of authority

Many cultures have shamans, or spiritual guides, who assist individuals on spiritual journeys to the "underworld" or some other non-earthly realm. These shamanic journeys would likely be considered part of

the sacred.

Which is the single largest faith in the world?

Christianity

Which sociological perspective emphasizes individual religious expression through belief, ritual, and experience?

interactionist

Facing east toward Mecca while saying one's morning prayers is a characteristic of the Muslim religion. This behavior is an example of a religious

ritual

The feeling of exaltation that a person has when hearing a choir sing is characterized as a religious

experience