bones

Frontal bone

There is 1. Where your forehead is.

Parietal bone

There are 2, one on either side of skull

Sagittal suture

joins two parietal bones

Coronal suture

joins frontal and parietal bones (crown or tiara would sit on top of this suture)

Temporal bone

There are 2, one on either side of skull

Squamous suture

joins temporal bone to parietal bone

External auditory meatus

hole (canal) where your ears are

Styloid process

long pointed processes on underneath side of skull (stylus of pen); easily broken on many skulls

Zygomatic process

Together with temporal process of zygomatic bone forms the zygomatic arch (cheek bone)

Mastoid process

lateral base of skull; large bump behind your ear

Mandibular fossa

depression that articulates with condyles of mandible; bottom part of skull

Occipital

There is 1; back of skull, contains foramen magnum

Lambdoid suture

joins occipital bone to the temporal and parietal bones

Foramen magnum

large hole at base of skull that brain stem and spinal cord pass through

Occipital condyles

knobs on either side of magnum foramen; Articulates with the atlas

Sphenoid

There is 1; within the skull

Greater wings

large bat wing looking structures

Sella turcica

Saddle; right in the center of the front quadrant of the skull; Holds pituitary gland when brain is in place

Ethmoid

anterior to the sella turcia; There is 1 and is within the cranial bones

Perpendicular plate

top part of nasal septum; look thru nasal cavity on front of skull; With the vomer forms the nasal septum

Middle conchae

shell shaped bones on lateral sides of nasal cavity; you will also see inferior conchae below the middle conchae

Cribiform plate

flat area with holes on either side of crista galli (raised projection in front part of the half skull) where olfactory nerves come through holes in this plate

Crista galli

raised projection in front part of the half skull

Mandible

lower jaw - movable

Mandibular condyle

Coronoid process

Mandibular symphysis

fused in adults

Maxilla

upper jaw - fixed

Palatine process

hard palate

Palatine bone

posterior to palatine process; can see best on real skulls because you can see the point of articulation

Zygomatic bone

apple of cheek

Temporal process

Lacrimal bone

has a hole for tear ducts

Nasal bone

bridge of nose

Vomer bone

bottom part of nasal septum in front and if you turn the skull over you will see it - looks like a plow

Inferior conchae

inside nasal cavity on bottom; shell shaped

Hyoid bone

does not articulate with any other bone; serves as point of attachment for many tongue and neck muscles; upper throat - this is bone that gets broken when someone is strangled; looks like a horseshoe

Fast Male Lions Eat Poor Skinny Zebra

Frontal. Maxilla. Lacrimal. Ethmoid. Palatine. Sphenoid. Zygomatic

Cervical Spinous Process

all spinous processes point down; what you feel when you palpate the spine

Thoracic Spinous process

Lumbar Spinous process

Cervical Inferior Articular Process

inferior articular processes are underneath surface that articulates with the vertebra below it.

Thoracic Inferior articular process

Lumbar Inferior articular process

Cervical Superior articular process

superior articular processes are top flat surfaces that articulate with the inferior articular processes of the vertebra above it.

Thoracic superior articular process

Lumbar superior articular process

Cervical Transverse process

transverse processes project laterally

Thoracic Transverse process

Lumbar transverse process

Cervical vertebral foramen

vertebral foramen are holes in middle that the spinal cord passes thru

Thoracic Vertebral foramen

Lumbar vertebral foramen

cervical centrum (body)

centrums are solid circular part that faces the ventral part of the body

thoracic Centrum (body)

lumbar centrum (body)

Cervical vertebrae

7

Transverse foramen

holes on sides of the vertebrae; only in cervical vertebrae; small body

Atlas

C1 - flat; articulates with occipital condyle of the occipital bone (skull)

Axis

C2 - has the ondontoid process (dens) that sticks straight up; responsible for turning head side to side; pivot joint

Odontoid process

Sacrum

fused vertebrae at base of spine

sacrum superior articular process

articulates with inferior articular process of 5th lumbar vertebrae

Thoracic vertebrae

12; long spinous process; circular vertebral foramen; medium size body; resembles a giraffe head

Lumbar vertebrae

5; short stubby spinous process; triangular vertebral foramen; large body; resembles a lumbering moose head

Coccyx

tip of tail bone

Intervertebral disc

made of fibrocartilage and are between the vertebrae on the articulated skeleton

Thoracic cage

contains sternum and ribs

Sternum

Manubrium

superior; looks like the knot of a tie; also have a disarticulated manubrium

Body

middle part; also have a disarticulated body

Xiphoid process

inferior to body

True ribs

There are 7; articulate directly via cartilage to body of sternum

False ribs

There are 5; articulates indirectly via cartilage to the sternum or if not they are called floating ribs

Pectoral girdle

contains clavicle and scapula

Clavicle

collar bone

Lateral end

(acrominal end)-tapering and points away from middle of body; articulates with acromion process of scapula

Medial end

(sternal end)-chopped off; articulates with sternum

Scapula

need to determine right or left; spine goes to the back and glenoid fossa points lateral

Acromion process

end of spine

Coracoid process

below the acromion process near the glenoid fossa

Glenoid fossa

AKA glenoid cavity; articulates with head of humerus

spine

long process of the back; shoulder blade

Humerus

know right or left; head points medially; and the olecranon fossa is on the dorsal side

Head of humerus

rounded; articulates with glenoid cavity forming a ball and socket joint

Trochlea

articulates with trochlea notch of the ulna; on same side as head

Capitulum

articulates with head of radius; lateral to the trochlea

Coronoid fossa

depression on the ventral surface at the distal end of the bone. articulates with the coronoid process of the ulna

Olecranon fossa

deep depression on the dorsal side; articulates with olecranon process of the ulna

Medial epicondyle

rounded knob above the condyle on the same side as the head; above trochlea

Lateral epicondyle

opposite side of the head; above the capitulum

Radius

Head

flat

Styloid process of radius

pointed process

Radial tuberosity

rough process

Ulna

U shape on superior end

Coronoid process

inferior process

Olecranon process

superior process

Styloid process of ulna

pointed process on distal end of ulna

Trochlear notch

the U at the superior end of ulna

Radial notch

articulates with head of radius
Elbow is a hinge joint

Carpals

wrist; think about carpal tunnel syndrome; plane joint (flat) (intercarpal)

Metacarpals

palm

Phalanges

fingers

Pelvic girdle

Os Coxa

There are 2. Need to know right from left; the acetabulum points laterally so it can articulate with the head of the femur and the pubic bone with the orbturator foramen faces forward. The rough interior patch on the ilium goes on the dorsal side and arti

Ilium

you put your hands on your ilium

Ischium

you sit on your ischium

Pubis

Acetabulum

(means cup of vinegar; look for peace sign where the ilium, ischium and pubis bones meet in the acetabulum); articulates with the head of the femur to create a ball and socket joint

Obturator foramen

hole that the blood vessels and nerves pass thru when they leave the trunk and go into your legs

Pubic symphysis

cartilage that allows the hips to spread for child birth. Only seen on the articulated skeletons.

Femur

Need to know right from left; head points medially and the big notch between the condyles points posteriorly

head of femur

large know faces medially

neck of femur

beneath the head

Lateral condyle

Medial condyle

Greater trochanter

superior projection; point of attachment for tendons

Lesser trochanter

Medial epicondyle of femur

Lateral epicondyle of femur

Patella

knee cap; held loosely in place by ligaments

Tibia

(Tought)-shin; crest goes in the front; know right and left

Medial condyle of tibia

flat surface on the same side as medial malleolus

Lateral condyle of tibia

flat surface opposite the medial malleolus

Medial malleolus of tibia

point sticking out of on inside of ankle

Fibula

(Fragile)-long skinny bone in lower leg

Fibula head

more compact

Lateral malleolus

lateral point sticking out of ankle; tapering

Tarsals

ankle; plane joints (intertarsal)

Calcaneus

heel bone

Talus

articulates with tibia

Metatarsals

arch of foot

Phalanges

toes; hinge joint (interphalangeal)

suture

an interlocking line of union between bones

process

any prominent projection on a bone

fossa

a flattened or shallow surface or depression

condyle

a large, round articulating knob

foramen

a rounded opening through a bone

head

prominent, rounded enlargement on the end of a bone

epicondyle

usually rounded knob above a condyle

sinus

air-filled space within a bone (in 4 bones: frontal, maxillary, sphenoid, ethmoid)

proximal

closer to the midpoint of the body

distal

farther from the midpoint of the body

superior

closer to the head

inferior

farther from the head

medial

closer to the midline of the body

lateral

farther from the midline of the body