Anatomy Practical 2

trapezius

Action: extends and abducts head rotates and adducts scapula, fixes scapula
Attachments: posterior occipital bone, nuchal ligament, C7-T4, clavicle, acromion, and spine of scapula

deltoid

Action: abducts arm; flexes, extends, medially and laterally rotates humerus
Attachments: clavicle, acromion, spine of scapula, deltoid tuberosity of humerus

Pectoralis major

Action: flexes, adducts, and medially rotates humerus
Attachments: clavicle, sternum, cartilages of ribs 1-7, crest of greater tubercle of humerus

pectoralis minor

Action: depresses glenoid cavity
Attachments: ribs 3-5, caracoid process of scapula

latissimus dorsi

Action: extends, adducts, and medially rotates humerus; draws shoulder inferiorly

supraspinatus

Action: abducts arm, help stabilize shoulder joint
Attachments: supraspinous fossa, greater tubercle of humerus

infraspinatus

Action: laterally rotates arm, stabilizes shoulder joint
Attachments: infraspinous fossa, greater tubercle of humerus

Subscapularis

Action: medially rotates arm, stabilizes shoulder joint
Attachments: subscapular fossa, lesser tubercle of humerus

Teres minor

Action: laterally rotates and adducts humerus, stabilizes shoulder joint
Attachments: lateral border of scapula, greater tubercle of humerus

Teres major

Action: extends, and medially rotates humerus
Attachments: inferior angle of scapula, crest of lesser tubercle of humerus

Biceps brachii

Action: flexes arm, flexes forearm, supinates forearm
Attachments: long head; superior margin of glenoid cavity short head; coracoid process, radial tuberosity

Triceps brachii

Action: extends and adducts arm, extends forearm
Attachments: intraglenoid tuberosity of scapula, lateral and posterior surface of humerus, olecranon, tuberosity of ulna

Coracobrachialis

Action: flexes and medially rotates humerus

Brachialis

Action: flexes forearm
Attachments: anterior, distal surface of humerus, coronoid process of ulna

Pronator teres

Action: pronates and flexes forearm
Attachments: medial epicondyle of humerus, coronoid process of ulna, lateral, middle shaft of radius

Flexor carpi radialis

Action: flexes and abducts wrist
Attachments: medial epicondyle of humerus, second and third metacarpals

Palmarus longus

Action: anchors skin and fascia of palmar region

Flexor carpi ulnaris

Action: flexes and adducts wrist
Attachments: medial epicondyle of humerus, olecranon and posterior surface of ulna, pisiform, hamate, 5th metacarpal

Flexor digitorum superficialis

Action: flexes proximal and middle phalanges, flexes wrist

Flexor digitorum profundus

Action: flexes phalanges and wrist

Flexor pollicis longus

Action: flexes thumb

Pronator quadratus

Action: pronates forearm and hand
Attachments: distal part of anterior ulna, distal radius

Abductor pollicis brevis

Action: abducts thumb

Flexor pollicis brevis

Action: flexes thumb

Brachioradialis

Action: flexes forearm

Extensor carpi radialis longus

Action: extends and abducts wrist
Attachments: lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus, 2nd metacarpal

Extensor carpi radialis brevis

Action: extends and abducts wrist
Attachments: lateral epicondyle of humerus, 3rd metacarpal

Extensor digitorium

Action: extends phalanges, extends hand
Attachments: lateral epicondyle of humerus, middle and distal phalanges of 2nd-5th digits

Extensor carpi ulnaris

Action: extends and adducts wrist
Attachments: lateral epicondyle of humerus, proximal ulna, 5th metacarpal

Supinator

Action: supinates the forearm;
Attachments: lateral epicondyle of humerus, proximal ulna; proximal end of radius

Abductor pollicis longus

Action: abducts thumb

Extensor pollicis brevis

Action: extends thumb

Extensor pollicis longus

Action: extends thumb

Gluteus maximus

Action: extends and abducts thigh
Attachments: outer iliac surface, iliac crest, sacrum, coccyx, gluteal tuberosity of femur, iliotibial tract of fasciae latae

Gluteus medius

Action: abducts and medially rotates thigh
Attachments: lateral surface of ilium, greater trochanter of femur

gluteus minimus

Action: abducts and medially rotates thigh
Attachments: ilium, greater trochanter of femur

Tensor fasciae latae

Action: flexes and medially rotates thigh, extends and laterally rotates knee

Biceps femoris

Action: extends thigh, flexes knee
Attachments: ischial tuberosity, linea aspera, head of fibula

Semitendinosis

Action: extends thigh, flexes knee
Attachments: ischial tuberosity, proximal, medial tibia

Semimembranosis

Action: extends thigh, flexes knee
Attachments: ischial tuberosity, medial condyle of tibia

Rectus femoris

Action: flexes thigh, extends leg
Attachments: anterior inferior iliac spine, margin of acetabulum, patella, tibial tuberosity, lateral and medial condyles of tibia

Vastus intermedius

Action: extends leg
Attachments: proximal, anterior femur, patella, tibial tuberosity, lateral and medial condyles of tibia

Vastus lateralis

Action: extends leg
Attachments: greater trochanter of femur, linea aspera of femur, patella, tibial tuberosity, lateral and medial condyles of tibia

Vastus medialis

Action: extends leg
Attachments: linea aspera, medial side, patella, tibial tuberosity, lateral and medial condyles of tibia

Iliopsoas

Action: flexes thigh and lumbar vertebrae

Sartorius

Action: flexes and laterally rotates thigh, flexes knee
Attachments: anterior superior iliac spine, proximal, medial tibia

Pectineus

Action: adducts and flexes thigh

Adductor magnus

Action: adducts, flexes, extends, and medially rotates thigh

Adductor longus

Action: adducts, flexes, and medially rotates thigh

Adductor brevis

Action: adducts thigh

Gracilis

Action: flexes and medially rotates leg
Attachments: pubis, ischium, proximal, medial tibia

Tibialis anterior

Action: dorsiflexes and inverts foot
Attachments: lateral condyle and proximal tibia, first metatarsal and medial cuneiform

fibularis longus

Action: plantar flexes and everts foot
Attachments: head and shaft of fibula, lateral condyle of tibia, first metatarsal, medial cuneiform

Gastrocnemius

Action: flexes leg, plantar flexes foot
Attachments: condyles of femur, calcaneus

Soleus

Action: plantar flexes foot
Attachments: posterior, proximal tibia and fibula, calcaneus

Plantaris

Action: flexes leg, plantar flexes foot
Attachments: distal femur, calcaneus

Tibialis posterior

Action: plantar flexes and inverts foot
Attachments: proximal portion of tibia and fibula, second through fourth metatarsals and some tarsals

Flexor digitorum longus

Action: flexes toes, plantar flexes and inverts foot
Attachments: posterior tibia, distal phalanges of second through fifth digits

flexor hallucis longus

Action: flexes hallux, inverts foot

levator scapulae

Action: elevates scapula, abducts and rotates neck

Scalenes (anterior, middle, posterior)

Action: flexes and rotates neck, elevates ribs 1 and 2

Sternocleidomastoid

Action: abducts, rotates, and flexes head
Attachments: sternum, clavicle, mastoid process of temporal bone

omohyoid

Action: depresses hyoid bone

platysma

Action: depresses inferior lip, opens jaw

digastric

Action: elevates, hyoid bone; and mandible

mylohyoid

Action: elevates hyoid one and tongue

frontalis

Action: raises eyebrows, draws scalp anteriorly

temporalis

Action: elevates (closes) mandible
Attachments: temporal fossa, coronoid process and ramus of mandible

Masseter

Action: elevates (closes) mandible
Attachments: zygomatic arch, angle and ramus of mandible

orbicularis oculi

Action: closes eyelid

Orbicularis oris

Action: closes lips

Risorius

Action: abducts corner of mouth (draws edge of mouth lateral)

Mentalis

Action: protrudes lower lip

Buccinator

Action: compresses cheek

Zygomaticus (major and minor)

Action: elevates corners of mouth (in smiling and laughing)
Attachments: zygomatic bone, superolateral angle of mouth and muscles of upper lip

Depressor labii inferioris

Action: depresses inferior lip

Levator labii superioris

Action: elevates superior lip, flares nostril

External abdominal oblique

Action: compresses abdominal wall, laterally rotates waist

Internal abdominal oblique

Action: compresses abdominal wall, laterally rotates waist

Transverse abdominal

Action: compresses abdominal wall, laterally rotates waist

Rectus abdominis

Action: flexes vertebral column, compresses abdominal wall
Attachments: crest of pubis, pubic symphysis, costal cartilages 5-7, xiphoid process

Serratus anterior

Action: abducts scapula (moves scapula away from spinal column)

External intercostals

Action: elevates ribs (increases volume in thorax)

Internal intercostals

Action: elevates and depresses ribs

Diaphragm

Action: inspiration

Erector spinae (iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis)

Action: extends and rotates vertebral column and head

Quadratus lumborum

Action: extends and abducts vertebral column

Rhomboid major

Action: adducts scapula

Rhomboid minor

Action: adducts scapula

Splenius

Action: extends and rotates head